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Important Facts About Pelger-Huët Anomaly In Cats That You Need To Know


Pelger-Huët anomaly in cats is actually an inherited feline condition, wherein the neutrophils become hyposegmented. For instance, the nucleus of the cells has only two lobes or even has no lobes at all. For most of the parts, this is a bland condition that affects the domestic shorthair cats. In this article, we will be discussing what Pelger-Huët anomaly in cats really is. Read on to learn more!

Pelger-Huët Anomaly in Cats: What is this feline condition?

The Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats is actually an unusual genetic condition, which affects the white blood cells in the cat’s body. Furthermore, this defect may cause the cells to have a strange structure and shape in comparison to the normal and healthy cells. Moreover, the method of bequest is believed to be not sex-related and dominant. This just means that the cats retaining just one copy of the Pelger-Huët Anomaly gene might have the condition. In the cats, thus far only the domestic shorthair cat breeds have been found to have this condition.

Causes of Pelger-Huët Anomaly

The Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats is due to the transmitting of a faulty gene, which comes from the parent. This gene goes to the offspring kitten. In addition, in cats that are affected with this ailment, the genetic defect may cause the white blood cells to get dumbbell or bilobe in shape. The whole white blood cell count might just be normal, with just the appearance of the cells’ shape being the ones different.

Types and Symptoms of Pelger-Huët Anomaly

There are actually two different types of Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats: homozygous and heterozygous. Heterozygous anomaly isn’t associated with an immunodeficiency, with predilection to infection, or with leukocyte function abnormalities. On the other hand, the heterozygous version is way more common and is known as the cat’s mature neutrophils look like metamyelocytes and bands. Contrariwise, the homozygous anomaly is commmonly lethal in the utero. Additionally, cats, which survive might have leukocytes that has oval to round nuclei on a tainted blood smear.


The homozygous Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats occurs when the cat inherits 2 copies of the gene affected. For this to occur, both the father and mother may have had to have a copy, in order to pass on to the offspring. When the symptoms occur, it is commonly in circumstances of the homozygous Pelger-Huët Anomaly.


When the cat accedes to just one copy of the faulty gene from either its parents, this is known as heterozygous Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats. In this form, most of the cats may not show any symptoms of the condition.

Moreover, the skeletal abnormalities, as well as the abnormal development of the cartilage were conveyed in a stillborn homozygous kitten. However, an unswerving link with the Pelger-Huët anomaly hasn’t been confirmed conclusively.

Prognosis of Pelger-Huët Anomaly

Due to the fact that most of the affected cats will not display any indications of the malady, Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats is commonly detected as a part of an investigation of some other condition. In erratic cases wherein a reduced immune response is detected, the prognosis may be part of the normal evaluation of the makeup of the white blood cell of the blood of the cat. Mreoover, the prognosis may also be made as a part of an investigation of the increased rate of the birth mortality either in a multiple or a single litter/s by the cats used in the breeding programs. Further, the definitive prognosis of the condition may need the vet to gather a blood sample.

This may involve a fast and painless process, wherein the vet will insert a needle in the cat’s vein as well as withdraw a small blood sample. Either the vet or the lab will examine the blood under the microscope. The distorted qualities of white blood cells may commonly be freely identifiable. If this illness is alleged, you must attempt to give the vet with a blood sample from the mother of the cat, as well as the father.

This will help in providing a conclusive prognosis, as well as help in determining which parent owns the defective gene. In some instances of Pseudo Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats, the shape of the white blood cells in the cat’s blood might change shape temporarily. This is caused by a primary bacterial infection or some circumstances of FeLV. Furthermore, the vet will also be able to extricate these conditions through the presence of some other symptoms not commonly found in the Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats, as well as thru the use of more diagnostic blood tests.

Treatment for Pelger-Huët Anomaly

In most of the cats, diagnosis for the long-term management of the Pelger-Huët Anomaly in cats is good. If the cat is asymptomatic, it’ll have a great quality, as well as length of life and will show zero indications of the condition. In the cats that are considered for use in various breeding programs, you must speak to the vet about the modes of inheritance. A qualified vet in the reproductive issues might be capable of helping you in determining the proper use of the cat affected in any of the breeding programs. In a lot of instances, it might also be advisable to neuter or spay the affected cat, hence eliminating the likelihood for spread of the deficiency to the future generations.

Guide In Cat Vaccination: What Do You Need To Know About It?


There are numerous diseases, which may be fatal to cats. However, there is a defense available that may help in fighting these lethal conditions. I am talking about feline vaccinations. These are beneficial in bolstering the immune system and fight different infections. Nonetheless, feline vaccines are easily the most prickly subject in the veterinary medicine. That being said, it is important to have a guide in cat vaccination, as well as the proper knowledge about it. Give this article a read and learn more about cat and kitten vaccination.

We begin with the kitten vaccination.

Guide in Cat Vaccination: What are the types of feline vaccination?

All cats need vaccinations. This is for them to stay healthy. The vaccinations, by description, protect the kitten against the contraction of various diseases. Further, there are two types of cat vaccinations, including:

  • Non-core cats vaccinations. These are not significantly suggested for all felines. Rather, these kinds of vaccines are suggested just for the cats, which are at higher danger of infection. In the non-core vaccinations case, the lifestyle of the cats should be evaluated in order to know the risk of the disease, as well as whether the hazard that’s in association with the vaccination is much bigger than the possibility of the cat acquiring the disease.
  • Core cats vaccinations. These are vaccinations, which protect against particularly dangerous and/or especially common diseases ad are suggested for all the adult cats, and kittens.

Non-Core Kitten Vaccinations

The non-core vaccinations for cats include the feline Giardia vaccines, Chlamydophila felis, FIP or Feline infectious peritonitis, FIV or feline immodeficiency virus, and FeLV or feline leukemia virus.

The FeLV vaccine is suggested by various vets for all the kittens, while some other vets recommend the vaccine just of the kittens that are at risk of the disease. Further, the decision must be based on the lifestyle of the pet, and the discussion you have with the vet.

Furthermore, the FIV vaccination is mainly for cats that are at much higher risk for the disease. The FIV is a disease that’s mostly spread from a cat to another, via bite wounds. On the other hand, the FIP and Giarda vaccines are usually not suggested due to their questionable efficiency and some safety issues.

Core Kitten Vaccinations

All the kittens must get a vaccination, which shields against feline calcivirus, feline rhonitracheitis, as  well as feline panleukopenia or FVRCP. These are diseases, which are naturally ubiquitous and often present in the over-all cat population. Furthermore, the calcivirus is among the most common viral sources of the upper respiratory infections in cats. The protection for all three viruses is commonly provided in one-mixture vaccine.

The schedule for vaccination for the FVRCP may start in as quickly as 6 weeks of the age. The kittens gets vaccinated once in every 3-4 weeks, ’til they finally reach the 16th week of age. Nonetheless, in order to avoid the excess vaccination, most of the vets will recommend beginning the injection at the 8th week of age. This will be followed by the boosters at the 12th and 16th week.

The rabies is one more core kitten vaccination. Remember, rabies is a deadly disease, which may affect not just the cats, but some other animals as well, including us humans. Your cat may actually receive rabies vaccination in as promptly as 12 weeks old, yet this mainly depends on the law and the vet.

Adult Cat Vaccination Schedule

It is a common thing for cats to need boosters on the core vaccines a year after the initial kitten vaccines. After this booster, the vaccines are usually boosted each 1-3 year, basing on certain vaccine used, as well as the lifestyle of the cat itself. You may consult your cat for some advice regarding the proper vaccination schedule for your cat.

Moreover, the non-core vaccines are boosted annually. However, just only for the cats at risk for the certain disease. Your vet may help you in determining the relative risk to the cat, varying on the lifestyle of the cat. As well as help in laying out the effective vaccination schedule, according to the individual needs of a cat.

Costs of Cat or Kitten Vaccinations

One of the most important things to know about the guide in cat vaccination is the cost of it.        

The cost of the vaccine for cats and kittens may vary extensively on the geographical location, the individual vet practice you have, the kind of vaccine, and some other factors. The costs that’s ranging from about $20 up to $45 aren’t that unusual for an individual vaccination only. Further, most of the vets may want to perform some medical test before the vaccine. This may add another $50 up to $100 into the overall cost. Furthermore, your cat may also need more than one vaccine in a visit. For example, your cat or kitten might need to receive some rabies vaccine, together with FVRCP vaccination.

A lot of practices offer packages, which include multiple procedures for cats. For example, a new cat may get a first vaccination, physical examination, deworming, feline leukemia test, as well as fecal examination. All of these during the same visit. The cost might be ranging from $70- up to $250. This may rise if neuter or spay surgery is included in the package.

Pyothorax In Cats: What Should You Know About It?


Pus in the chest cavity or pyothorax in cats occurs when the natural immune response of the body to a certain invasion of bacteria accrues in the chest cavity. The pus, made up of dead cells and white blood cells. This gathers at the infection site. Sooner or later, the white blood cells die, leaving a thick whitish-yellow fluid, which is distinguishing of a pus. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about pyothorax in cats including its causes, symptoms, and treatment. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Pyothorax in Cats?

A pyothorax is a buildup of fluids, which may be yellow, brown, or red in color if aspirated for the diagnostic cytological examination. Further, the cause of the pyothorax in cats is subject for a debate, as vet specialist have associated different possible causes to this particular infectious condition. However, research has shown that pyothorax isn’t a hereditary predisposition of whatever cat breed and that cats under 3 years old are at much greater risk of the development of the condition, rather than in older cats.

Moreover, pus in the chest cavity is medically known as pyothorax. In medical term, pyo denotes pus and thorax is the certain area of cat’s chest, hence a pyothorax is a septic outpouring found in pleural space.

Pyothorax in cats occurs when the natural immune response of the body to a certain invasion of bacteria accrues in the chest cavity. The pus, made up of dead cells and white blood cells. This gathers at the infection site. Sooner or later, the white blood cells die, leaving a thick whitish-yellow fluid, which is distinguishing of a pus.

However, the pus, which accrues in the chest cavity is actually different from the abscess, in which it doesn’t create a bounded tissue wall, in order to inhibit bacteria from spreading. Rather, the pus may form in sacs, which then line the pleura, which eventually scar the cavity and austerely impair the function of the lungs.

Additionally, a bacterial infection, which settles in the chest cavity of a cat may enter from the esophagus or lungs. Cats commonly get these kinds of infections from bite wounds, yet they may also get them from breathing in foreign bodies, or from spreading lung infection, like pneumonia, through the chest cavity.


The precise cause of pyothorax in cats is actually a subject of debate amongst vet specialist. A certain infection of a bacterial origin in the contracted cause of pyothorax, yet how an infection stretch to the thoracic cavity might be due to the following:

  • Pulmonary abscesses
  • Lung parasites
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Damage to the esophagus or trachea
  • Foreign bodies, which have migrated through the chest upon the respiration
  • Dental condition, which is triggers the bacteria to go into the bloodstream
  • A bite to the chest of the cat


Pyothorax in cats may cause a huge deal of respiratory distress to the cat. In fact, the cat might have difficulty in breathing throughout regular activities and lay on its side more often might increase the distress in moving air up to the lungs. Furthermore, cat owners might notice that the cat tends to avoid situations that are physically challenging, just like going upstairs or engaging in encounters with playmates. Also, the cat may keep its mouth open, in order to push even more air into its lungs. This is already a clear indication of austere respiratory distress.

The symptoms, which you may see in cats with pyothorax include the following:

  • Pyrexia
  • Dehydration
  • Dull hair coat
  • Poor body condition
  • Anorexia
  • Lethargy
  • Weakness
  • Tachypnea
  • Weight loss
  • Painful breathing
  • Depression
  • Open mouth breathing
  • Shallow breathing
  • Respiratory distress

Treatment for Pyothorax in Cats

The main focus in pyothorax in cats treatment is getting rid of the fluids from chest cavity, as well as deliver an destructive therapeutic regimen of antibacterial agents to the cat. Commonly, a drain or a flexible catheter, is being inserted in the affected chest cavity area, thus allowing the fluids to be detached from the body. Getting rid of the fluids, which come from the chest may alleviate the pressure that comes from the lungs, letting the cat to regain its normal habit of breathing.

Coupage –a certain technique, which involves speedily slapping the chest wall, yet not with sufficient force in injuring the cat –might assist in removing debris from the chest cavity. Additionally, a bacterial culture may also be reiterated if the condition of the cat does not progress.

In addition, the affected area might be flushed out, in order to get rid of the infection and pus directly from the source. Nevertheless, antibiotics is necessary to use. Antibiotics are frequently given to the cat in an oral manner, yet may also be administered via a surgically placed gutter. Further, the cat may likely to be hospitalized for about a week, since it will take quite a few days for the fluids in thoroughly draining from the chest.

Important Facts About Prostate Cancer In Cats That You Need To Know


The prostate gland, as we know, is a very important part of any male reproductive system. This contains numerous essential and valuable enzymes, which include citric acid and calcium, and also plays a significant role in the motility and protection of the sperm. The liquid that’s secreted by the prostate gland may assist in the liquefaction of the semen once done in ejaculation, as well as in the protection of the sperm in the vagina. One condition that hinders the important function of the prostate gland is the prostate cancer in cats or adenocarcinoma. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about prostate cancer in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Prostate Cancer in Cats?

As we have said above, the prostate gland, is an important part of the male reproductive system. It has numerous essential and valuable enzymes, which include citric acid and calcium, and also plays a noteworthy role in the motility and defense of the sperm. The liquid that’s secreted by the prostate gland may assist in the liquefaction of the semen once done in ejaculation, as well as in the protection of the sperm in the vagina.

Moreover, prostate cancer in cats is way more common in dogs, rather than in cats. Nonetheless, cat owners must, nevertheless, be well aware of this habitually deadly disease. The prostate cancer may spread rapidly once it shows in cats, hence treatment is frequently not effective. However, if you happen to notice the signs of prostate cancer, like difficulty in urinating, you need to bring the cat to a vet as immediately as possible.

In addition, cancer may also occur in so many areas of the body of the cat, including its prostate. Even though it is so small, it actually plays a significant role –supporting with the semen production. As the male cats age they’re at much higher risk of developing cancerous tumors in the prostate gland.


Just like with people, there are so many possible causes of the prostate cancer in cats. Further, genetics might play a huge role in the determination of whether the cat ends up having the condition, yet environmental factors like exposure to toxic chemicals, as well as diet might also affect the chances of the cat. Age might also be a factor, so the older the cat is, the more susceptible it is of developing prostate cancer.

Even though you may certainly lower the risk by having the cat neutered, there is actually no way to totally prevent the prostate cancer.


Cats are way better than some other animals, especially at hiding their discomfort and pain, so the owners need to pay a close attention to spot the symptoms of prostate cancer. Some of the symptoms of the condition include the following:

  • Pain when touched
  • Constipation
  • Lethargy
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Trouble urinating
  • Poor or interrupted urine stream
  • Bloody urine
  • Discolored urine


prostate cancer in cats

Vets may commonly check for the signs of prostate cancer throughout a mundane physical, particularly if the cat is older and intact. Nevertheless, owners frequently bring the cats in when they have a struggle in urinating. You must prepare for the answers to the questions on the normality and frequency of the urination of the cat. If you’ve noticed any rare signs, like the presence of blood in the urine or the cat getting in strange position to using the bathroom, you need to mention this to the vet.

Moreover, the veterinarian may perform a rapid rectal exam to feel the shape and size of the prostate gland. This might be somewhat uncomfortable to the cat, yet it should not last long. Also, the vet might tell if there is an issue with the cat’s prostate if it is unusually shaped or enlarged.

On this moment, the vet might suggest some tests to rule out possible medical maladies. Further, a urine test may also be conducted in ruling out a kidney or urinary tract infection. Lastly, ultrasound might be essential as well in determining if there are tumors or cysts in the prostate.

Treatment for Prostate Cancer in Cats

The treatment the cat may get will depend on the austerity of the prostate cancer in the cats. There are some prostate cancers, which are treatable with surgery to get rid of the cancerous tissue. Nevertheless, this may just be done if cancer hasn’t spread to some other parts of the body.

However, prostate cancer is greatly metastatic. This just means that it commonly spreads speedily all over the body and might not be treatable with surgery. If cancer has already spread, the vet might most probably recommend chemotherapy. This treatment is given to the cat via IV once in every three weeks the cat may also experience side effects of the treatment, including loss of appetite, fatigue, as well as nausea.

Important Facts About Prostate Inflammation In Cats That You Need To Know


Prostate inflammation in cats or prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate, which is typically the result of a long-lasting infection, which has gone unnoticed. A prostate abscess that’s characterized by a sac filled with pus, might lead to prostate inflammation. The condition is divided in 2 phases –chronic and acute. In this article, we will discuss some more important facts about prostate inflammation in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Prostate Inflammation in Cats?

Prostate inflammation in cats is more likely to happen in the cats that haven’t been spayed or neutered. Furthermore, castration is an amazing way to prevent illnesses of the prostate from recurring or happening in the first place.

Moreover, prostate inflammation in cats, also called prostatitis, is an unusual condition in male felines, which may happen by itself or as a symptom of another illness. This particular condition may be mild to austere and might cause some breeding issues. Further, prostatitis may lead to the formation of abscesses that is filled with pus in the cat’s prostate gland. In case the treatment is delayed, the abscesses may grow largely and may threaten the overall health of the cat.


The main cause of the prostatitis in cats is the sudden bacterial infection in the prostate gland. Further, prostate inflammation in cats might also be a symptom of another, more austere disease, including benign squamous metaplasia, prostatic neoplasia, and prostatic hyperplasia. These conditions are commonly characterized by the growths commonly originate in some other parts of the body, commonly in the bladder or some other parts of the cat’s urinary tract, as well as spread into the prostate gland.

Because of the nature of this condition, the immunity of the cat affected starts to become weak, making the cat more susceptible to bacterial infections, which may cause prostatitis. The conditions has the tendency to be so rare in cats and are more common in the older dogs. Despite that, you may want to seek an immediate vet attention in getting rid of these as possible causes of prostate inflammation.


In some instances, the cat might not show any symptoms at all. Even though this condition is so rare in cats, you may still want to make sure that you seek an immediate vet attention if you happen to notice any of the symptoms below:

  • Constipation
  • Difficulty in defecating or urinating
  • Blood present in the urine
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness and lethargy


prostate inflammation in cats

The veterinarian may first ask about the complete medical history of the cat. Make sure that you inform them about the extent and the duration of the symptoms of the cat together with any medications they might be taking.

In addition, in case the cat has not gone anesthetization yet, the vet might use urinalysis and blood tests in determining whether or not they’re sufficiently healthy to be sedated or anesthetized with the use of some other methods.

Moreover, the vet might then sedate the cat to perform a complete rectal examination. Nonetheless, this is just a tentative diagnostic process, and even more tests is necessary for a more conclusive prognosis. The vet might use ultrasounds, x-rays, prostatic massage, biopsy, urine cultures, as well as fine needle aspiration.

Treatment for Prostate Inflammation in Cats

The treatment for prostate inflammation in cats may depend on the primary cause of the condition.

The prostatitis that is caused by a bacterial infection commonly needs about 6-8 weeks antibiotics course. If the cat experiences a significant trouble in defecating, an enema might be administered. In case the prostatitis is austere, the cat might be kept in a hospital and may be given intravenous medicines, up until the condition has already stabilized.

Furthermore, the abscesses that are filled with pus located in the prostate gland should be drained. This needs fine needle aspiration or surgery. Varying on the size of the abscesses, as well as their overall effect on the health of the cat, hospitalization might be necessary.

Particular causal conditions wherein the prostate inflammation is symptomatic, might just be cured through castration. For instance, benign prostatic hyperplasia may develop due to hormones that are secreted by the cat’s testicles, and should be treated through castration. For the cancerous causes, chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and surgery are commonly the most effective courses of medication or treatment.

Moreover, neutering is almost always suggested as a way of preventing any further prostate illnesses. The vet may discuss this with you in favor of the specific needs of the cat.

Important Facts About Amyloidosis In Cats That You Need To Know


Amyloidosis in cats –a condition that belongs to the group of conditions, all share a common feature –the abnormal and pathologic deposition of fibrous protein amyloid in various tissues of the body, hence disrupting the normal function of the areas. The buildup of amyloid frequently occurs tributary to a causal lympho-proliferative or inflammatory disorder. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about amyloidosis in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Amyloidosis in Cats?

Even though amyloidosis has different renowned causes, this feline condition is very well known as a marital trait in the Abyssinian and Siamese cat breeds. A large number of Siamese oriental cat breeds have already been reported to contract amyloidosis, which affect the liver, wherein Amyloidosis also affect the kidneys of the Abyssinian oriental cat breeds.

Moreover, cat frequently develop this protein condition in between 1-5 years old, yet the development of the condition may come on speedily or may progress over years. Also, the mode of amyloidosis inheritance is not known, hence it’s suggested that the affected cats be detached from any breeding practices.

In addition, amyloidosis is actually the term that is used in describing the abnormal deposit of protein complex or amyloid in the tissues or organs of a cat. This amyloid deposits may disrupt the organ function of the cat that leads to the failure of the said organ, as well as eventual death. The amyloidosis is categorized based on the kind of amyloid protein that is involved, with the AL amyloids and AA amyloids being the most typical in amyloidosis disease in cats. What’s more, the AA amyloids tend to deposit in the spleen, liver, and kidneys, thus resulting in cancer, inflammatory disease, or chronic bacterial infections. On the other hand, the AL amyloids tend to deposit in the nerve tissues and joints of a cat, thus causing neurological damage.


Amyloidosis in cats is a condition that is due to complex, misfolded proteins or amyloids. Which can’t go into the body. Further, the abnormal structure of protein is thought to be a result of the abnormal mutation of gene, a genetic condition existent in the bloodline of the feline family trees. Also, the nature of this genetic mutation and inheritance is not in the books yet.

The Abyssinian and Siamese cat breeds have a high vulnerability to the condition, even though this condition is somewhat rare. Some more factors, which might play in the role of developing this condition are environment where the cat lives, as well as different infectious diseases.


The symptoms of amyloidosis in cats are actually in relation to the progressive internal organ damage. the amyloid proteins are complex, misfold protein –that means that they are hard for the body to break down and use like some other proteins in the body. Also, over a period, the proteins deposited accumulate, displacing the normal organ tissues and upsetting the imperiled vital function of an organ. Further, the organ tends to enlarge, inflame and gets damages, thus resulting to deadly organ failure.

The symptoms of amyloidosis in cats include the following:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Weakness
  • Depression
  • Dehydration
  • Poor hair coat
  • Polydipsia
  • Polyuria
  • Lethargy
  • Anorexia
  • Weight loss
  • Liver amyloid accumulation
  • Kidney amyloid buildup


Amyloidosis in cats is hard to differentiate from some other cat conditions. Organ infections, failure as well as disease of the spleen, kidneys, and liver organs may all imitate the clinical symptoms that come with amyloidosis. Additionally, amyloidosis is rare in vet medicine and is lesser likely to be a cause of cat’s condition, rather than common organ conditions that commonly affect the cats.

Nevertheless, amyloidosis might also be suspected by the vet if the cat has been suffering from chronic infection. In addition, the mainstream of cats, which are admitted to the vet clinic are showing clinical indications. This just means that the amyloid protein deposits have caused austere damage already to the organ of the cat.

Clinical indications will soon become fatal and the vet will then make a prognosis post-mortem. A biopsy may help in revealing amyloid protein deposits in the affected organs being a confirmative prognosis.

Treatment for Amyloidosis in Cats

There is actually no known cause of the condition in cats, or some other species. Further, there are no medication that’s effective in allowing the body of the cat to breakdown or absorb the mutate, complex amyloid proteins, in order to prevent organ deposit accumulation. There’s also no real prevention method for it, yet as the infection and environmental factors are a probable cause, overall healthy cats may be less possible to develop the fatal condition. Each cat patients should have their own special diet only for them, in order to suit their organ function.

Important Facts About Protein Deposits In Cats That You Need To Know


Protein deposits in cats is actually a feline condition, wherein a waxy translucent material, which consists mainly of protein –the deposits in the tissues and organs of cats. Protracted excess of this particular condition might lead to organ failure. Also, the liver and kidney are the most typically affected. However, amyloid deposition may also occur in some other organs too. There is no genetic involvement that’s been found, yet familial liver amyloidosis is seen in Oriental shorthair and Siamese cat breeds. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about protein deposits in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What are Protein Deposits in Cats?

In the actual fact, there are two major kinds of amyloids. The AA amyloids commonly develop as a response to illness and might be found in the major organs of the body. Most commonly, they affect the kidneys, yet they may also form in the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and heart. The amyloids that’s in the brain might lead to dementia.

On the other hand, the second type is the AL amyloids. These commonly develop all over the body –specifically in the nerve tissue and joints. Both the AA and AL amyloid development are actually a part of a certain degenerative condition. An early treatment from a vet may greatly help in extending the life of an affected cat.

Moreover, after a cat deals with the defect or disease for a long period, its body might begin to produce protein deposits that are abnormally folded. This particular process is called the amyloidosis –the deposits are what they call the amyloids. The amyloid deposits may occur all over the body or might stay in one location.

Further, the amyloids displace the normal cells. This condition might develop in all the mammals, yet is commonly rare in cats. Actually, it is seen more frequently in the older cats, rather than the younger cats.


Though protein deposits in cats are frequently seen in coagulation to specific diseases, the precise cause of the formation of this condition is actually not known. Specific breeds of cats are so susceptible to amyloids. Further, the related maladies and risk factors include the following:

  • Cancer
  • Heartworm
  • Immune disorders
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Fungal infection
  • Bacterial infection
  • Hereditary disposition


Since amyloids most frequently form in the kidneys, a lot of its symptoms are in relation to kidney failure. What’s more, if amyloids have already formed in some other organs, the symptoms may relate to the failure of that organ.

  • High blood pressure
  • Breathing problems
  • Jaundice
  • Fluid retention
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Confusion
  • Swollen limbs
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Decreased appetite
  • Polydipsia
  • Polyuria


protein deposits in cats

If the protein deposits in cats are assumed, the vet may require the full medical history of the cat. Also, the vet will also conduct a thorough physical examination. A full blood work may be necessary in including a biochemical profile, as well as complete blood count. This might lead to the discovery of the causal cause of the amyloidosis, just like cancer. A urinalysis might also be necessary, more especially in case of kidney failure. The urine might also be collected above 24 hours, in order to measure the amount of protein that’s spilling through it.

Additionally, ultrasounds or x-rays may be essential to evaluate the major organ’s condition. If the signs of kidney failure are existent, yet both of the kidneys are of normal size, amyloidosis might be the causal condition. Moreover, biopsy might also be essential for the complete prognosis. Further, the tissue of the affected organ might be gathered and tested using staining. This will help in showing if there are any amyloids present.

Treatment for Protein Deposits in Cats

Amyloidosis or protein buildup in cats isn’t curable itself. The best possible treatment might be identifying and alleviating the primary cause, which is creating the deposits. Further, the progression of amyloid may decelerate, yet success may depend on how advanced the condition has already become.

  • Underlying Conditions. If the causal condition is infection, antifungal or antibiotics medication may help greatly in the overall health of the cat.
  • Supportive Care. If there’s an organ failure, supportive care might be essential in keeping it comfortable, as well as to give the best recovery. Commonly, this may include the administration of fluid via IV. The cat might also receive an oxygen supplementation.
  • Diet Therapy. The vet might prescribe a precise and deterring diet, in order to reduce the progression of the formation of amyloid. If the kidneys have already been affected, the cat’s diet may be low in protein and phosphorus. In case of hypertension, the diet may have abridged salt.
  • Medication. Particular drugs like thymosin, D-penicillamine, as well as some chemotherapy agents might be recommendable, in order to slow down the degeneration due to amyloidosis. The earlier it is caught, the greater the chance that the medication may help the cat.

Pennyroyal OIl Poisoning In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Pennyroyal oil comes from the plants that are part of the mint family, called Labiatae. It’s often utilized in flea sprays, powders, and fragrances. It might be toxic to cats, specifically when ingested. The active poison present in the pennyroyal oil is actually a chemical called pulegone. This is toxic to the liver and may cause austere liver damage. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about pennyroyal oil poisoning in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Pennyroyal Oil Poisoning in Cats?

Pulegone is actually the poisonous substance that is found in the pennyroyal oil. If this is ingested, it may lead to so many different consequences, which include failure of the liver and even death. Even though toxicity commonly takes place when the pennyroyal oil is utilized in treating fleas, when it is ingested, it’ll be just as dangerous.

Moreover, pennyroyal oil is frequently marketed being a natural product that’ designed for the treatment of fleas on both dogs and cats. Nonetheless, it is so important to remember that the term natural is not the same as the term safe. The pennyroyal oil is toxic to dogs, cats, as well as even humans when ingested, hence it must be used properly or better –avoid it.


Some animal or pet owners think that the pennyroyal oil is a natural substitute to punitive tick and flea medicines that are sold at pet stores. Hence, pet owners frequently buy pennyroyal oil with the idea that they are going to protect the health of a cat. Nevertheless, pennyroyal oil poisoning in cats is also a thing. In the actual fact, it can be so toxic to felines when ingested or consumed. As a matter of fact, veterinarians believe that cats are at a much higher risk of the pennyroyal oil poisoning, rather than in dogs.

Even though the owners might think that utilizing pennyroyal oil directly on the skin of a cat isn’t dangerous at all, there is actually no way that you can prevent the cat to lick itself and swallowing the oil. Even just a small amount of pulegone that is the poisonous substance in the oil, may impact the cat’s health seriously.

In addition, ingesting the pennyroyal oil is actually the most usual cause of the pennyroyal oil poisoning in cats, nonetheless, it may also happen if the cat ingests the pennyroyal plant that is typically available in Europe.


When left without any treatment, the pennyroyal oil poisoning in cats may cause permanent kidney or liver damage, and in some instances, death. The cat owners need to seek an immediate medical assistance for the cat if they start to notice any of the following symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Unconsciousness
  • Coughing up blood
  • Bloody nose
  • Seizures
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting


If the cat starts to experience any of the aforementioned symptoms of the condition, take it immediately to the vet. You may need to provide the veterinarian with the info on the diet of the cat, as well as any products that you are using on it. Bring these products with you to the office of the vet if you can. This is for the veterinarian to look closely at the ingredients in the product. The vet might also ask if the cat is an outside or inside cat, as well as what plants or products it might have ingested without the knowledge. There is no examination in diagnosing the pennyroyal oil poisoning in cats, hence providing this info to the vet is important, so it may start to narrow down what really is causing the symptoms of the cat.

After the prognosis, blood tests might also be run for the determination of the extent of the damage to the cat’s internal organs. These tests might assist the vet in deciding what treatment is essential for the cat.

Treatment for Pennyroyal Oil Poisoning in Cats

Once a prognosis has already been made, activated charcoal might be given to the cat, in order to stop the poison in spreading even further all over the body. Moreover, charcoal is also a dominant absorbent, thus when it goes inside the body, it starts to absorb the toxins right before they even move in the bloodstream.

Moreover, the vet might also administer a stomach wash, which may induce the vomiting, as well as ensure that all the poison has been removed from the cat’s body. The cat might be hooked u[ as we’ll to an IV, to be able to receive fluids, which prevent dehydration coming from the prompted vomiting.

In the event that the pennyroyal oil was applied to the skin of the cat, the vet might also completely bathe the cat in getting rid of the excess oil, which might be lingering onto the skin. This might help in preventing the cat from ingesting more toxins when it grooms itself later.

In addition, cats, which have suffered from liver damage due to pennyroyal oil poisoning might be given NAC or N-acetylcysteine that is often utilized in treating liver failure due to acetaminophen. Due to the effects of acetaminophen and pennyroyal on the liver being similar, N-acetylcysteine is thought to treat both, no0nethelss, more research is still needed.

Nasal Polyps In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Nasal polyps in cats refer to the bulging pink growths, which are benign, and are found to appear from the mucus membranes or the moist tissues that line the nose. Moreover, what causes this feline condition is not yet known. But it is suspected that various congenital processes might be the ones to blame. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about nasal polyps in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Nasal Polyps in Cats?

The pink growth in the nose or nasal polyps in cats are typically found in the younger cats, no more than 2 years of age. Additionally, a nasopharyngeal or nasal polyp, may be characterized by the difficulty in breathing during physical activity or snoring. As the masses progress, the cat shows developing the same symptom to cat respiratory disease and are frequently diagnosed falsely. The nasal polyps are found often after proving the antibiotic treatment for respiratory disease being ineffective.

In addition, the pink growths in the nose in cats are actually noncancerous masses, which may impact the respiratory system of the cat. Vets use two different terms in describing the pink growths in the cats’ nose –nasopharyngeal polyps and nasal polyps. The pink growths in cats’ nose, which arise from the moist mucus membranes inside of the nose and nowhere else are called the nasal polyps. Nonetheless, if the growth spreads from the nasal cavity through the soft palate, back of the throat or the middle ear, the growth is known as nasopharyngeal polyp.


Veterinarians disagree on what really causes the pink growth in the nose of cats. Moreover, some vets also think that both nasopharyngeal and nasal polyps are congenital, genetic mutation, which was passed down from the parent to its offspring, existent at the kitten’s time of birth. In the actual fact, this theory is based on the link between the polyp growth and the regular tumor. It’s also a well-known fact that the tumors, especially the cancerous ones, are frequently found in similar genetic makeup and bloodline.

Besides, other vets think that the nasopharyngeal and nasal polyps are a secondary response to a virus in the respiratory system, which causes inflammation to the cells of the cat. Common viruses, thought to be linked with these growths include the herpesvirus and calcivirus, as the cats, which recuperated from respiratory illnesses has a development of polyp rapidly after.


Common symptoms of the nasopharyngeal polyps may include the following:

  • Weight loss
  • Refusal to drink or eat
  • Swallowing difficulties
  • Ear infection
  • Odor from the ear
  • Nystagmus
  • Ear scratching
  • Balance problems
  • Head shaking
  • Head tilt
  • Nasal discharge
  • Noisy breathing
  • Changes in meow, becoming more quiet or deeper
  • Difficulty in breathing

In austere cases, nasopharyngeal polyps may cause symptoms linked with Horner’s Syndrome. The pupil of the eyes may appear small, the 3rd eyelid might protrude, the eye might look sunken the socket, and the eyelid might drop down, covering a part of the eyeball.

The symptoms of nasal polyps include:

  • Breathing via the mouth
  • Disinterest in food because of lack of sense of smell
  • Nasal congestion
  • Sneezing
  • Nasal discharge
  • Snoring
  • Breathing difficulties


The vet may start the diagnostic process with an exam of the cat’s mouth, ears, and nose via the use of otoscope. Nonetheless, the soft palate frequently hides the pink growths and a precise prognosis might need a way more innovative prognosis tool like CT scan or X-ray of the skill. Further, the cat might possibly be anesthetized for the whole examination, in order to keep it calm, reduce stress, as well as to allow for a comprehensive examination.

The vet may also request you to discuss the medical history of the cat, focusing mainly on the respiratory infections and formerly acquired viral infections. Complete blood count, biochemistry profile, as well as some other routine blood work might probably be taken, in order to make sure the organs of the cat are functional before administering any anesthesia.

Treatment for Nasal Polyps in Cats

The treatment option for nasal polyps in cats is surgery. Because of the location of the polyps, the whole mass can’t be detached, hence a process known as de-bulking occur. This surgical process might mean that the vet may remove as much mass as possible in a surgical manner, leaving the mass’ base. Vets use this kind of surgery in preventing possible nerves, openings, and auditory organs in the respiratory structures.

In the actual fact, the de-bulking surgery isn’t a treatment for the polyps, and some other surgery is frequently necessary. Also, the vet might recommend corticosteroids or some other anti-inflammatory medications, in order to slow the possible growth, thus giving the cat time halfway surgeries.

Even though reappearance of nasal polyps in cats is common, most cats do so well after the surgery and the quality of life they have is good.

Pit Viper Bite Poisoning In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Pit vipers are snakes that are a member of the Crotalinae family of snakes. They are recognized for the retractable fangs they have. They might be renowned from some other snakes through the heat-seeking pit that they have in between their eyes and nostril on the head. The range is all throughout the continental United States. The bites of these snakes most frequently happen in rural areas where these snakes are more often seen. Moreover, these snakes oftentimes attack on felines, which causes the pit viper bite poisoning in cats. In this article, we will discuss some more important facts about pit viper bite poisoning in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis and treatments. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Pit Viper Bite Poisoning?

The area where your cat is gnawed by a snake greatly matters. The bites, which take place in the cat’s body adjacent to the heart are frequently deadly. Every bite may differ in venom toxicity and volume, thus making it difficult to determine the symptoms’ onset. The pit viper venom might interfere with the ability of the body to accumulate blood that may cause a bitten cat to bleed, or cause the blood to coagulate very promptly, thus causing organ failure. Most of the bites appear on the limbs, head, or neck. Some of the pit viper bite in cats might inject just neurotoxins, which paralyze slowly the cat, as well as ultimately stop the respiratory system. Whatever snake bite is essentially a medical emergency necessitating an immediate vet attention.

Moreover, pit vipers are the venomous snakes that are found in so many parts of the North America. They have pit in between their nostrils and eyes that might lead to the name of the snake. They’re the biggest venomous snakes, which range from 4-8 feet long. They also include copperheads, cottonmouths, and rattlesnakes. It’s assessed that, on an average, about 150,000 dogs and cats are gnawed by these types of snakes each year. Also, the snake doesn’t always release the venom in the bite, only doing it when they’re threatened. About 3 over 4 bites are actually venomous.


Even only the existence of the cat might be enough to intimidate a pit viper to bite. If you’re in a certain area where pit viper snakes are known to live, it is the best that you keep close tabs on your cats. If the cats are allowable to roam outside where the snakes are present, there might be a risk of pit viper bites. Moreover, the toxic venom from the snake’s bite may destroy the cat’s red blood cells, cause blood coagulation, and get paralyzed. The pit viper bite poisoning in cats might also kill the body tissues, coagulating a snake bite being an austere threat to the life of the cat.


The symptoms of the pit viper bite poisoning in cats might progress instantaneously at any given time after the bite has occurred. If 1 or 2 bleeding wound lesions are eminent and they start to hemorrhage or cause inflamed, the venom has possibly been injected in the cat. Some other symptoms that you need to watch for include the following:

  • Shock
  • Spreading local tissue damage
  • Abnormal gait
  • Drooling
  • Restlessness
  • Bleeding, slow blood clotting, or bruising
  • Unusually low blood pressure level
  • Labored or shallow breathing
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Extreme pain

In addition, if you saw the snake’s bite or you think that it has occurred, you need to keep your cat resting down and transport it promptly to a vet clinic. You shouldn’t wait and see if the symptoms show. The life of your cat is at stake.


pit viper bite poisoning in cats

Before you get to arrive at the vet clinic, call ahead in order to verify if they have antivenin for pit viper bite on hand. They might have to obtain some from a human hospital or you might be referred to neighboring facility, which carries an antivenin. Not all of the venters carry this antivenin as it is so expensive and doesn’t have a lengthy shelf life.

Securing an antivenin before even the diagnosis is certain is the best thing that you can do, since the cat only have limited time before its organ will shut down. In case the snake’s been killed, bring it with you, yet make sure that you don’t touch its fangs, since they remain venomous even after its death.

Treatment for Pit Viper Bite Poisoning in Cats

The first aid measures for pit viper bite poisoning in cats may include calming the cat and keeping it still, as the activity might move the venom all throughout its system even more rapidly. Transporting the cat promptly to a vet clinic is so important. In the clinic, intravenous fluids might be given, in order to correct the low blood pressure. Furthermore, oxygen might also be given for breathing disparities, as well as transfusions for austere clotting issues.

If you’re certain that the cat is a victim of snakebite, you’ll need to make it known to the vet so anti-venom serum might be administered. The sooner it is administered, the better the survival rate of the cat.

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