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Poxvirus Infection In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


The poxvirus infection in cats is actually due to a DNA virus, which come from the Poxviridae family of virus, particularly from the genus –Orthopoxvirus. This is a rather common transmitted or communicated virus, yet it might readily be disabled through different kinds of viral disinfectants. Cats of all genders, breeds, and ages are vulnerable to the poxvirus infection and both exotic and domestic cats may contract the poxvirus infection. Further, it is also important to remember, nonetheless, that this virus is limited geographically to Eurasia or the continents of Europe and Asia. In this article, we will discuss some more amazing facts about poxvirus infection in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn more!

What is Poxvirus Infection in Cats?

Poxvirus infection is actually a zoonotic malady. This just means that it may be transmitted in between species, including humans, dogs, and cats. It’s so important to get a vet help as soon as possible for this particular zoonotic illness, more especially if you have some other pets at home. If you’re anxious that you or your family members might have been infected by this virus, you should seek some medical attention promptly.

Moreover, poxvirus is also a virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. This also include the cowpox, which is of the same condition, which might affect the cats. Also, poxvirus infection in cats commonly appears with skin lesions on different parts of the body, and might progress to general indications, specifically when secondary infection gets to develop in the skin cuts. This particular virus may infect any kind of cat, regardless of its age or breed, including both the exotic and the domestic ones.

Thus farm this feline condition is limited to the Eurasian countries or the countries in Europe and Asia. If you are living in a certain area where the poxvirus infection in cats is prevalent, you need to be careful for the signs of the infection in the cat, as well as to comply with the requirements for the transport of them to some other counties when important. Adopting, purchasing, as well as moving cats deliberately frequently needs to have them tested for any disease or illness.


Feline cowpox is the same virus as the poxvirus, which is transmitted the similar way. It may infect a lot of animals, not only cats. The name it has might suggest it’s the most typical condition in cattle, yet it’s actually rare with the bovine species. If the cat has contracted with this condition, which is rampant in Europe as well, the symptoms might include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Lack of appetite
  • High body temperature
  • Pneumonia
  • Nasal discharge
  • Breathing issues
  • Skin ulceration


Rodents are actually the main carriers of the poxvirus, and may transmit the condition to cats via bites. Cats, which live outside and hunt in rodents are at higher risk of obtaining a bite and contracting the poxvirus infection i9n cats. If there are skin lesions developed, they commonly appear in the bitten area.


Some cats may show direct indications of infection, you need to remember that this isn’t always the case, the symptoms might take one to 2 weeks to start appearing. The skin lesions are the most typical symptoms of the poxvirus infection in cats. These lesions may appear circular and crusty, as well as might be found on the area like:

  • Mouth
  • Front legs
  • Head
  • Neck

Some other symptoms, which might appear include:

  • Conjunctivitis
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Pneumonia
  • Anorexia
  • Lethargy


A vet assessment commonly includes a thorough physical examination, as well as a discussion on the health history of the cat. Further, the vet might ask some questions regarding the exposure of the cat to some other animals, and the possible contact of it with rodents. Moreover, it’s also common for standard blood tests to be done, in order to rule out or identify the systemic conditions, which might cause the symptoms of the cat.

When the sores or lesions are existent, as is typical with the poxvirus, samples of scabs or tissue are commonly examined with the electron microscopy, in order to determine if there really is a poxvirus infection. Additionally, a skin biopsy might also be conducted, as well as some other laboratory tests and cultures, in order to rule out or identify the bacterial or fungal infections,

Treatment for Poxvirus Infection in Cats

There is actually no known direct treatment for the poxvirus in cats. The signs and symptoms of it might be treatable with antibiotics and fluid therapy might be recommended, in order to assist in keeping the cat from having secondary infections. The cat might be sent home as well with Elizabethan collar. This will help in preventing the cat from scratching or licking its wounds while they heal. Nonetheless, even though there is no direct treatment for poxvirus in cats, most cats that are infected with it may recover on their own after a month or two.

What Should You Know About Pediatric Behavior Problems In Cats?


Pediatric behavior problems in cats –this feline condition refers to the undesirable traits or behaviors shown by kittens between puberty and birth. It is so important to address this in an early stage, as the behaviors that are acquired in this range of age might be hard to alter later. The preventive measures in avoiding such behaviors are important, since the kittens are so susceptible to environmental and physiological influences. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about pediatric behavior problems in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What are Pediatric Behavior Problems in Cats?

In general, at the time in the life of a kitten, the mother cat might be teaching it suitable forms of interaction and play with its peer. In a normal play, a cat might not show its claws out and it might not bite down so hard. Kittens, which have failed in learning these manners may engage in rough kind of play, frequently attaching the owners of the other pets even without the provocation. The bad behaviors might pose a real deal to the families with small children,

Though the kitten play might be cute to look at, a lot unwanted behaviors may form in its younger stages of life. The stage of being a kitten may last from birth up to puberty. Nonetheless, a lot of behavioral developments may take place in between 8-12 weeks old. You may start to notice the cat showing excessive destructive and aggressive behaviors. Younger cats might also form a great fear to humans on this time. This isn’t good, since a fearful cat might either be isolated or it might be prone to attacks. One more undesirable behavior in young cats is the elimination or defecation outside the litter box. The kitten may destroy the flooring and furniture so quickly with the improper elimination.


A kitten might be vulnerable to developing any unwanted behaviors if it’s orphaned, removed from its mother, or abandoned at a young age. Moreover. If there are no other felines at home, it is not likely that the cat will learn proper feline manners. The contributions to bad behavior may include the following:

  • Lack of toys and some other stimuli
  • Harsh correction like chasing or smacking
  • Early trauma from attach by another animal
  • Exhilarated rough play by the owners
  • Minimal exposure to humans in the 3rd to 7th weeks
  • Insufficient socialization with some other animals
  • Feral parents
  • Genetic traits from the father cat


If the habits of the kitten appear to be much worse than you might have expected, the kitten might be forming some behavioral problems. Further, it is so normal for cats to have increased energy levels. What isn’t normal is for them to terrorize the inhabitants and the home. The signs that you should look out for in pediatric behavior problems in cats include:

  • Hiding
  • Fleeing
  • Hissing
  • Flattened ears
  • Piloerection
  • Dilated pupils
  • Damaging furniture
  • Intentionally knocking objects off counters of shelves
  • Intense running onto furniture, especially at night
  • Excessive chasing, pouncing, attacking, or stalking
  • Unwelcome attacks on animals or people
  • Bites, which break the skin
  • Scratching the claws out


pediatric behavior in cats

On one of the early checkups of the kitten, mention your worries on the behaviors of your cat that starts to appear. The veterinarian might choose to do a complete physical examination of the kitten, in order to make sure that the kitten is in the prime state both mentally and physically. From there, you’ll possibly get some books or pamphlets on training your cat, or get a referral to behavior expert professionals.

Moreover, if the kitten is eliminating in wrong places, the vet might want to verify if everything is internally normal for the animal. Blood work might be necessary, including a biochemical profile and complete blood count. Also, urinalysis might show if there are whatever rare substances, which pass into the urine of the cat. Some instances might experience pain as well while they urinate or defecate, as well as associating pain when they’re in the litter box.

Treatment for Pediatric Behavior Problems in Cats

There are many steps that you can take to curb pediatric behavior problems in cats. They include the following:

  • Declawing. In case the cat is scratching people or furniture to an extent that the owner is surrendering already, declawing can be a great choice to do.
  • Castration or spaying. Fixing the kitten might stop it from urinating in various unwanted areas. The cat might lose its desire in spraying after spaying or neutering.
  • Booby traps. Self-activated punishments might be essential in training a cat to stay off a particular surface or away from the furniture at home.
  • Diet. Proper kind of diet using premium kitten food might assist in stopping the rapid energy spikes.
  • Increase activity. Some kittens might just have increased energy with no sufficient outlets. Play some more with your cat and introduce new toys and surfaces to it.

What Should You Know About Jaw Paralysis In Cats?


Trigeminal nerve neuritis or jaw paralysis in cats is characterized by a sudden onset of the incapacity to close the jaw because of jaw branch dysfunction of the trigeminal nerves. This might be because of a nerve injury that might range from neuritis, demyelination, as well as occasionally to fiber degeneration of the branches of trigeminal nerve and nerve cell body. The condition is fairly rare in cats, in comparison to dogs. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about jaw paralysis in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Jaw Paralysis in Cats?

The jaw paralysis in cats is actually a serious feline condition, which may be due to a number of causal conditions. Cats that are suffering from this condition might have difficulty or complete incapacity, in order to use the mandible or jaw. Though the condition itself is dangerous and alarming because of the effects it might have on the ability of the cat to swallow, drink, or eat, it might be an indication of even more severe conditions. Whatever signs of paralysis may warrant immediate vet attention.

Trigeminal nerve neuritis or jaw paralysis in cats is pigeon-holed by a hasty onset of the incapacity to close the jaw because of the trigeminal nerves’ jaw branch dysfunction. This might be because of a nerve injury that might range from neuritis, demyelination, as well as occasionally to fiber degeneration of the branches of trigeminal nerve and nerve cell body. The condition is fairly rare in cats, in comparison to dogs.


The trigeminal nerve is actually the nerve that is responsible for the movement and sensation in the face. This nerve is split in three branches that control the three different areas of the fact, these are the maxillary, mandibular, and ophthalmic. The conditions, which affect the mandibular branch may cause jaw paralysis in cats. The causes of this paralysis include:

  • Possible immune response
  • Trauma from an accident or rough handling
  • Tumors or lesions suggestive of cancer
  • Unknown or idiopathic causes


Jay paralysis in cats might be hard to observe in initial or minor stages. Nonetheless, as the condition keeps on progressing, the symptoms might become more and more obvious. The signs and symptoms that you should watch out for might include the following:

  • Distorted vocal sounds
  • Messy eating with a lot of food particles spread around or left behind
  • Difficulty in eating or drinking
  • Drooling
  • Incapacity to close the mouth
  • Dropped or hanging jaw wherein the mouth may hang open


Just as with any serious conditions. The prognosis of jaw paralysis in cats may start with a complete physical examination by the vet. You need to arrive on your appointment with a complete documentation about the onset of the condition as much as possible. Additionally, a complete timeline of different symptoms, including other progression or worsening, might help the vet in determining a proper treatment plan.

In addition, the vet might also order a urinalysis and a complete blood panel in order to screen for any infection. The vet may also examine the mouth, ears, and eyes. Occasionally, simple maladies have a much greater level of treatability. Examining the cat’s mouth may also allow the vet in determining whether there’s any capacity to close and open the jaw and whether there’s an accumulation of food particles in the cat’s teeth. Both of which are signs of jaw paralysis.

Moreover, the vet might also order MRI imagind or x-rays to identify any possible trauma to the area that surrounds the trigeminal nerve and the jaw. This might allow the vet to rule out any broken jaw or classify the existence of any abscesses or obstructions.

Treatment for Jaw Paralysis in Cats

The treatment of jaw paralysis in cats may vary depending on whether any causal condition is discovered. In the instance of infection, antibiotics might be recommendable. The vet might also prescribed some anti-inflammation medications or even steroids in order to assist in the reduction of any swelling, as well as in encouraging the healing to whatever dented area. During, before, as well as after prescribing these kinds of medications, the vet may wish to monitor the general health of the cat and even blood panels as they might be taxing on some other important organs when given long term.

In all instances, treatment of the paralysis of the jaw may focus on giving the cat sufficient supportive care, in order to allow tube or spoon feeding a liquid diet. Also, the owners need to exercise caution when doing a tube feeding. This is because there is a great risk on aspiration pneumonia when treatment isn’t properly administered.

If you’re not able to give incessant care for a cat while it recovers, the cat might need to be hospitalized as it go and regain its strength. This may have a lot of benefits. The cat may also be confined through a smaller area where they’re forced to rest. The cat might also have an access to intravenous fluids that are scarcely administered at home.

What Should You Know About Giardiasis In Cats?


Giardiasis in cats –this medical term actually refers to the intestinal infection that’s due to the protozoan parasite giardia. This parasite may also infect other animals. Further, this is the most common intestinal parasite that’s found in humans. The contamination of these condition might be from indirect or direct contact with the infected cysts, yet commonly, cats may acquire an infection by way of ingesting infectious cysts, which are shed by some other animal via its feces. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about giardiasis in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Giardiasis in Cats?

Giardiasis is actually an infection that is instigated by Giardia intestinalis parasite. Furthermore, the parasite may affect both animals and humans. In the actual fact, this is a common cause of diarrhea in people who travel frequently. The cats may be infected after drinking or eating things, which have been contaminated, primarily animal feces or groundwater. When the parasite has already been introduced in the body of the cat, it may latch onto the intestinal wall and start to reproduce and feed. This may cause an immediate discomfort and a sudden diarrhea.

Moreover, the most apparent signs of the giardiasis include soft and odorous diarrhea, which might or might not contain mucus or blood. Cats, which are suffering from giardiasis may experience intestinal discomfort, as well as might be at risk of becoming austerely dehydrated. In order to prevent complications, it is so important that you take the cat to a vet as soon as you start spotting the symptoms.


Giardiasis is due to the giardia intestinalis parasite that may infect both animals and people. Cats need to eat or drink the parasite to become infected. Commonly the cats may develop this kind of infection after they drink contaminated water or eat contaminated feces from some other animals. When the parasite is already in the body of the cat, it may attach into the intestinal walls and start to reproduce themselves.


The cat may start to show some symptoms of the condition suddenly without showing any warnings. The most apparent sign of giardiasis is diarrhea with a robust odor that is commonly watery or soft, as well as might slightly be discolored. Some felines might have a mucus or blood in their stool as well. Nonetheless, this isn’t the only indication of giardiasis in cats. Some other symptoms include:

  • Lethargy
  • Weight loss
  • Vomiting


Cats may hastily be dehydrated if they keep on having diarrhea without any medical attention, hence it is so important to take the cat to a vet as soon as possible for the proper treatment. Make sure that you tell the veterinarian when did the symptoms fist started, as well as how often did the diarrhea has happened.

Giardiasis in cats appears as a soft, strong-smelling, fecal matter, thus the veterinarian might need to know if this is the way the cat’s fecal matter really smells or looks. You might also need to let the veterinarian know about the diet of the cat. Cats might frequently get diarrhea from the diet changes, hence if you have not made any changes, it is so important that you rule this out as a possible cause.

In addition, the vet might also need to examine the stool of the cat, to be able to provide a precise prognosis. Either a fecal flotation test or fecal smear test might be done on the stool sample. If the cat has giardiasis, the parasite might be present in the fecal matter. Nonetheless, it isn’t guaranteed that each stool sample may contain parasite. Hence, the vet might need to test manifold samples to confirm that it is giardiasis. It is also possible that the vet may ask to test the samples from 3 separate days before they make a formal prognosis.

Treatment for Giardiasis in Cats

In some instances, the vet might not be able to spot the parasite in the stool of the cat, even when it is existent in the body of the cat. If there are no other symptoms identified, the veterinarian might diagnose the cat with giardiasis although he hasn’t seen the parasite.

Moreover, unless the cat is so weak, you need to take it home after the consultation with the veterinarian. Nonetheless, if the cat has suffered austere electrolyte imbalance or dehydration form having diarrhea and vomiting, he might need some Intravenous fluids. There are actually no medications that have been approved to treat giardiasis in cats in the United States. Nevertheless, veterinarians may still administer some prescription medications, most typically metronidazole, in order to treat the condition. This may commonly need to be given for a certain period. The cat might also need to be completely bathed to make sure that there are no parasites that’s hiding in the fur of it.

What Should You Know About Parasitic Blood Infection In Cats?


Hemotrophic mycoplasmosis or parasitic blood infection in cats is actually an infection of red blood cells by the mycoplasma. It may either be M. haemofelis. This is the most austere form, which affects the cats, or the M. haemominutum, the less austere form. This condition might also be denoted to as feline infectious anemia or haemobartonellosis, even though hemotrophic mycoplasmas is actually the preferred medical terminology. While some felines may show no signs of infection, some others might show minor signs of anemia and still some others might lose all of the energy they have and then die. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about parasitic blood infection in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Parasitic Blood Infection in Cats?

The kinds of parasites, which infect the cat might also come in an extensive range, from a single-celled protozoa through a more complicated forms of bacteria. Though there are various methods of injection, the mainstream of the parasitic blood infections are being transmitted via fleas and ticks. In order to prevent these conditions, you need to always work with the veterinarian, in order to develop an effective control regimen for your cat.

Hemotrophic mycoplasmosis or parasitic blood infection in cats is actually an infection of red blood cells by the mycoplasma. Further, the mycoplasma bacteria are actually the most common cause of pneumonia and urinary tract infections. They’re a class of bacterial parasite, which belongs to the Mollicutes order. Also, the parasites lack real cell walls and are capable of surviving without oxygen, thus making them resistant to the antibiotics and hence a much greater challenge in detecting and treating.

Moreover, the parasitic blood infections in cats include a range of conditions wherein parasitic organisms may invade the blood system of the cat. The conditions may range in severity and origin. Some may lead to mild sickness, while the others might cause austere anemia or even bereavement.


There are different parasitic blood infections, which are able to infect the cat. Below are some of the most common particular conditions and the parasitic cause:

  • Changas’ Disease. This is due to an infection by the trypanosomes, biting insects may transmit this condition in between domestic cats and wild animals. This particular condition might also be communicated to humans for the cats.
  • Hepatozoonosis. This is a tick-bone disease, which is transmitted through the brown dog tick. The tick may become infected when feeding on the infected host, yet cats may just acquire the condition, by way of eating the tick, not through being bitten.
  • Feline Infectious Anemia. Also known as hemobartonellosis, a common parasitic blood infection in cats is due to a kind of bacteria, which enters the bloodstream, through blood-sucking insects like ticks and fleas, and may also be transmitted through fighting or scratches.
  • Cytauxzoonosis. This is due to a parasite by the similar name, this condition may naturally occur in the wild cats in North America. Also, this spread to domestic cats through tick bite.


Even though the majority of the parasitic blood infections in cats are spread through biting insects, there are a range of some other ways that these conditions might be transmitted. Moreover, cats or wild cats allowed in interacting with feral or wild cats, might especially be at risk. The common causes include:

  • Blood transfusion
  • Spread from infected from mother cat to kittens
  • Scratches
  • Spread of blood via fighting with some other cats
  • Spread of blood via mating
  • Transmission of parasite via flea or tick bites


The exact signs and symptoms of parasitic infection may vary, contingent on which of the different kinds of infection the cat has contracted. However, most of these, may have particular common characteristics, which you need to watch out for.

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Jaundice
  • Fever
  • Dehydration
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Diarrhea
  • Pale gums
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy
  • Anemia


parasitic blood infection in cats

The diagnosis of the parasitic blood infection in cats may start with a complete physical exam by the vet, as well as the review of the symptomatic and medical history. You also need to provide thorough info on the diet of the cat, whether it’s an outdoor or indoor cat, as well as whether it’s recently come in contact with any other domesticated or wild animals. You need to discuss as well whether your cat is on whatever tick and flea control regimen, since this may possibly help in narrowing down the organism, which causes the parasitic blood infection.

Treatment for Parasitic Blood Infection in Cats

The treatment for parasitic blood infection in cats might be two-fold. First, the vet may stabilize the cat and deal with some immediate lethal symptoms. This might include intravenous fluids, as well as medicated baths, in order to get rid of any ticks or fleas, and in some austere cases, blood infusion, in order to counteract austere anemia.

In addition, the next step may be addressing the parasite itself, and the treatment may vary on the exact organism that’s being identified through diagnostic tests. Further, it can be important for the vet in identifying the real kind of parasitic infection, as the choice of medication may greatly vary from a parasite to another. In the case of most bacteria, antibiotics might be a preferred treatment plan.

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome In Cats: What Should You Know About It?


Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats –a feline condition that is characterized via tenacious eosinophilia –that is, unrelenting overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow, is a malady of unidentified cause. Nonetheless, the suspected cause is a connection to an austere reaction to a certain unidentified antigen or an impairment of the immune response and the control of the production of eosinophil. This is actually a multi-system syndrome, which has invasion of tissues through eosinophils and succeeding organ dysfunction and damage. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in Cats?

Overproduction of white blood cells or Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats is a condition that’s characterized by tenacious eosinophilia. This is the unrelenting overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow. The eosinophils release the regulatory proteins through the tissues known as eosinophil-consequential cytokines, as well as eosinophil granule products. Further, when excessive eosinophils release the proteins, death and organ damage may take place.

When the bone marrow gets to produce a bigger amount than needed of a kind of white blood cell –eosinophils, the condition is called Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats. The white blood cells are a part of the immune system and support protect the body of the cat against any foreign invaders, and infectious diseases. When a cat gets ill, the present hematopoietic stem cells into the cat’s blood marrow yield superfluous white blood cells, in order to fight the foreign invaders. Commonly, eosinophils compose a small part of the production of white blood cell, since they are commonly made as a response to allergies and parasites.


It isn’t known what really causes the hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats to happen. The researchers think that it might be triggered by a certain reaction to an unknown antigen. In addition, this particular antigen stimulus might arise from 2 different viral strains, instigating the production of white blood cells. Also, the cats who’ve had eosinophilic enteritis, a condition, which causes inflammation in small intestine, might be predisposed to the Hypereosinophilic condition.


The severity of the symptom commonly increases progressively as the amount of eosinophils increase. The symptoms of Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats include:

  • Chronic cough,
  • Skin lesions,
  • Seizures,
  • Itching,
  • Swollen lymph nodes,
  • Thickened, non-painful intestines,
  • Abdominal masses,
  • Enlarged spleen,
  • Enlarged liver,
  • Lethargy,
  • Weakness,
  • Fever,
  • Diarrhea that has blood,
  • Vomiting,
  • Emaciation,
  • Weight loss, as well as
  • Loss of appetite.


The vet may need to discern the heath history of the cat, when the symptom first started, as well as a complete list of the signs. The vet may examine the cat physically, listen to its lungs and heart, as well as feeling for any masses in the body of the cat or any swollen lymph nodes.

Different laboratory tests may also be done in identifying the condition, as well as in ruling out some other conditions, which might be present with the same symptoms. The laboratory tests may include a cytochemical staining, urinalysis, a fecal flotation test, biochemical blood profile, as well as a complete blood count. These aforementioned tests may commonly show a high amount of white blood cells, organ dysfunction, and anemia in the organs affected.

Radiography might also be used in looking at the condition of the organs affected. A radiocontrast dye might also be injected into the cat. X-rays and CT scans may then be taken. The tests might also show thickened intestines, fibrosis, abnormal intestinal lining, enlarged lymph nodes, and thickening of heart arteries.

Treatment for Hypereosinophilic Syndrome in Cats

Nutritional Support

If a cat refuses food, nutritional support might be administered to make sure that the cat is getting enough calories for the healing. Additionally, a feeding tube might go thrthe nose of the cat to deliver the nutrition needed.

Fluid Therapy

Cats that are dehydrated may need to receive IV fluids. This is in order to correct the fluid loss because of vomiting or diarrhea. Additionally, the vet may keep a close attention on the organs affected throughout the fluid therapy.  Moreover, this is to make sure that the heart and the kidneys are handling the fluids normally.


Steroids like prednisolone or prednisone, may be administered to the cat. These steroids are essential in stopping the eosinophils production. Furthermore, hydroxyurea, a kind of antineoplastic drug, might also be administered. These may also slow down the eosinophils products, thus allowing the immunoglobulin concentrations in order to normalize, as well as the organs to heal properly. If the medications are no working anymore, the vet might begin putting the cat on chemotherapy. Further, this treatment plan may slow down the production of white blood cells, by way of inhibiting the DNA production process.

Even though medications work normally in resolving Hypereosinophilic in cats, they might lose the effectiveness as the time goes by. With proper treatment, cats may commonly leave 6 months up to 3 years after the prognosis.

Optic Neuritis In Cats: What Should You Know About It?


Optic nerve inflammation in cats –also called optic neuritis is a feline condition wherein one or both the optic nerves of a cat are swollen, which results in an impaired visual function. The cranial nerve or optic nerve, is a nerve in the eye, which takes visual info and transmits this info to the brain. The optic neuritis condition may affect the nervous and ophthalmic systems of the body. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about optic neuritis including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Optic Neuritis in Cats?

Optic nerve inflammation or optic neuritis in cats may refer to a condition, which interferes with the function of the optic nerve, whether inflammation is existent or not, although it’s commonly is. Further, the optic nerve is the nerve that transmits signals and images from the retina through the brain so it might interpret what the eye perceives.

Moreover, optic neuritis may affect one or even both eyes and is commonly because of a secondary condition or an causal disease like those that affect the central nervous system or some kind of systemic infection, even though sometimes, the source is not known or idiopathic. Complementary deterioration of the myelin sheath that surrounds the nerve completely blocks or disrupts the communication nerve with the brain.

The inflammation might be confined to just the optic nerve or it might involve the optic head. This may also damage the space in arrears the eye, thus resulting to retrobulbar neuritis. The condition may lead to the loss of nerve transference causing either complete or partial blindness. This is frequently unexpected in the beginning. Also, the early intervention might prevent permanent blindness. This is a very rare illness in cats.


  • Retrobulbar optic neuritis. Inflammation of optic nerve in arrears of the eyeball, yet with normal appearance of optic nerve head.
  • Papillitis. Also known as the intraocular optic neuritis, a certain kind of optic neuritis wherein the optic nerve head is being inflamed. Edema might or might not accompany inflammation.


The optic nerve inflammation unusually happens on its own, unless it’s in conjunction with systemic condition. Nonetheless, in some instances, the origin is not known, and may seem to happen spontaneously.

Here are some of the more common causes of optic nerve swelling in cats:

  • Hypertension
  • Retinal degeneration
  • Cancer of the eye
  • Vitamin A deficiency
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Lead poisoning
  • Trauma
  • Inflammatory condition of the surrounding eye tissues
  • Bacterial or systemic fungal infection
  • Viral infection
  • Inflammatory brain disease


The symptoms of optic neuritis in cats include:

  • Diminished pupillary reflex to light
  • Inflamed optic nerve head
  • Distress
  • Sudden bumping in objects
  • Extreme disorientation
  • Headache
  • Pain when moving the eye
  • Inability to see clearly
  • Dilated and fixed pupils


The vet may start with a simple physical exam, including a thorough examination of the eye using an ophthalmoscope. Further, this may identify whatever existence of inflammation. If an inflammation is found, other tests may also be done.

A CBC, urinalysis, and blood test may help in detecting whatever causal infectious diseases there is, and the blood pressure level of the cat may be taken in order to determine if there is hypertension. In addition, if the said tests show a positive result, showing optic neuritis, the vet may refer you to a vet neurologist for supplementary tests.

In addition, a neurologist may conduct an ERG or electoretinogram, in order to determine the retina’s functionality. This particular procedure may involve sedation in getting a much clearer view of the inner eye. Also, a fluorescein dye may be infected through the bloodstream, in order to highlight the choroid and retina at the rear of the eye. Note, this is essential for the neurologist in determining the blood flow rate into the eye.

Treatment for Optic Neuritis in Cats

The treatment is hugely contingent on the main cause of the inflammation. The vet may discuss with you the important steps in addressing the causal condition of the condition in all instances, systemic corticosteroids, as well as topical medications are given to assist in reducing the swelling around the optic nerve. NSAIDs might also be recommended to assist in reducing the swelling. The medications might increase the urination, appetite, and thirst temporarily.

Pain medications might also be given as a course of antibiotics if a particular infection is ostensible. Additionally, if the cat is conceivably hypertensive, medication in controlling the blood pressure might be prescribed as well,

The vet might want to keep on monitoring the gastrointestinal, kidney, and liver functions, as well as the blood pressure throughout the treatment for any signs of adverse change. In case the cause of the condition is unknown, the vet may still prescribe some medications to assist in controlling the symptoms of the cat, as well as provide comfort as the cat makes some adjustments to the vision loss.

Urethral Prolapse In Cats: What Should You Know About It?


Out-of-place urethral mucosal lining or the urethral canal lining that produces mucus is commonly denoted to as urethral prolapse in cats. This particular condition may cause the mucosal lining to move into the outer part of the penile or vaginal opening, or the urethra, thus making it perceptible. Further, the urethral prolapse may affect different other parts of the body of the cat, which include the urinary bladder, urinary tract, immune system, as well as the reproductive organs. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about urethral prolapse in cats including the causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Urethral Prolapse in Cats?

The urethral prolapse or out-of-place urethral lining in cats is more common to occur in younger cats, even though it may also affect the older cats or the cats with immune issues. This is also more possible to happen in male cats, rather than in females. In most of the cases, urethral prolapse isn’t life-threatening at all, yet it may cause austere issues in the kidneys or in the urinary tract. Additionally, if the cat is showing the symptoms of urethral prolapse, seek a veterinary assistance.

Moreover, the urethral lining, as you may know, is a mucus membrane, which lines the urethral tract. If this lining blunders out of place due to various reasons, it may result in a medical condition called urethral prolapse. In the event that the urethral lining is out-of-place, it may cause a feeling of discomfort and create various problems, which relate to the passing of urine, as well as in vacating the bladder.


Various conditions and issues may result in urethral prolapse in cats. Furthermore, the younger cats and the ones of old age have a much higher risk of developing the condition. Some of the typical causes of urethral prolapse in cats include the following:

  • Cancer
  • Certain viral infections like FeLV or feline leukemia virus
  • Reproductive problems
  • Diabetes
  • Immune conditions
  • Bladder or kidney stones
  • Blockage or plugging in the urethra
  • Irritation because of sexual activity
  • Urethral disease
  • Abnormal development
  • Trauma, injury, or fractures
  • Congenital defect
  • Testicular disease
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Pregnancy


The urethral prolapse in cats may cause some issues with the urination. The main symptoms that come with the condition are actually the same to those of the urinary tract infection. Further, the most apparent clinical symptom of this condition is the bare urethral lining, which appears as a mass on the end of the urethral tract. Additionally, this is much easier to observe in male cats of a species, rather than in female cats.

The symptoms of urethral prolapse in cats include the following:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Restlessness
  • Localized red to purple discoloration
  • Inflammation or swelling on the genitalia or the surrounding area
  • Bleeding from the urethral opening
  • Excessive licking of the area
  • Bare urethra mass from urethral tract in female cats
  • Bare urethra mass on the end of the penis in male cats
  • Unusual urine odor
  • Urinating in strange areas
  • Evasion of the litter box
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Pain and correlated vocalizations when urinating
  • Urine leakage
  • Incapacity to pass the urine
  • Urine steam stops and then starts


Various diagnostic imaging like x-rays, computerized axial tomography scan, as well as magnetic resonance imaging scan are frequently used in ruling out any causal issues with the bladder or prostate. Moreover, upon the examination, the vet may need to rule out some other common causal conditions as well, which include fractures of the urethral, testicular, and penis diseases.

Due to the fact that some issues are just present in times of ejaculation, the vet might find the action beneficial for the examination of the genital functioning of the body.

Treatment for Urethral Prolapse in Cats

The treatment for urethral prolapse in cats is commonly designed for the repair of damage in the urethral tract. In addition, some treatments might be prescribed as well, in order to assist with the accompanying symptoms like infection and pain. The mainstream of cats with urethral prolapse may need surgery to treat the condition properly. The treatment methods include the following:

  • Surgical Intervention. In most instances, surgery might be necessary in correcting the urethral prolapse of the cat. This is somewhat common, yet like with any surgery, there’s a moderate risk of the complications, as well as side effects.
  • NSAID Pain Relievers. This medication is essential in treating inflammation and pain. It may also assist in the reduction of fever. This is prescribed commonly as a post-surgical operation treatment.
  • Antibiotics. The bacterial infection is a typical symptom, as well as a possible cause that comes with the urethral prolapse. Further, if urine or blood cultures point toward an infection present in the system, antibiotics might be given as a treatment. Also, there is a low risk of side effects with most of the antibiotics.

Nose And Sinus Cancer In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


It is a common knowledge that there are many parts of the respiratory system. However, the two major and important parts of the upper respiratory system are the paranasal and nose sinuses. The paranasal sinuses are the hollow spaces in the skull’s bone. They link with the nose, as well as assist in adding moisture through the air that the cat breathes in via its nose. Both the inside of the paranasal sinuses and nose are enclosed in the similar kind of tissue, known as the epithelium. The tumors, which may grow from the squamous epithelium are known as squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about nose and sinus cancer in cats including its causes, symptoms, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and many more!

What is Nose and Sinus Cancer in Cats?

Nose and sinus cancer in cats are actually denoted to be somewhat rare in cats and in some other companion animals. Cats are at a much higher risk in developing this kind of cancer, rather than in dogs. The symptoms might be so similar to the respiratory infection and might not appear austere up until the cancer has gone to a late stage. Whatever animal that shows signs of nose and sinus cancer must be seen by a vet as quickly as possible.

Moreover, nose and sinus cancer is also a condition wherein abnormal cell growth happens in the nasal cavity, surrounding tissues, or sinus passages. The cancer cells may be malignant and may have a potential in spreading, or they might be benign. Either of the case, medical interventions are frequently important in removing and treating properly the tumor. Even though most of nose and sinus cancer in cats are malignant, they’re less possible to spread, rather than the cancer that are found in some other parts of the bod. The most expected location for this kind of cancer is to the lymph nodes or brain.


There are different kinds of cancer, which may be found in cat’s nose and sinuses. For cats, carcinomas and lymphomas are the most typical forms of nasal as well as sinus cancer. These cancers has the tendency to be malignant. The kinds of nose and sinus cancer seen in cats may include the following:

  • Squamous cell tumor
  • Sarcoma
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Meningioma
  • Melanoma
  • Lymphoma
  • Fibroma
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Carcinoma
  • Basal cell tumor
  • Adenoma


Just like a lot of cancers that affect cats and some other companion animals, the precise cause of nose and sinus cancer in cats is not known. Cancer happens because of the abnormal cell growth, and nose and sinus cancer is actually of no difference. It may be due to skin, bone, lymphatic, or some other kinds of cells. Additionally, the risk factors, which might increase the probability of nose or sinus cancer in cats include the following:

  • Presence of cancer somewhere else in the cat’s body
  • Living at home with a smoker
  • Frequent or chronic infections
  • Exposure to particular poisons or chemicals
  • Exposure to pollutants
  • Urban dwelling
  • Sex –the male cats are more vulnerable to the condition
  • Age –the condition is more likely to happen in older cats.


When the cancerous cells are present in the sinus passages or nasal cavities, the symptoms may often be the same as the respiratory infection. Typical early signs may include runny nose, sneezing, and nasal stiffness. These may all be in connection to so many minor and common illnesses. Since the cancer progress and the cell grow and spread, the austerity of the symptoms may increase, thus making them even more obvious. The symptoms might affect the sinuses, brain, face, eyes, and the nose.

The symptoms of the condition may include the following:

  • Seizures
  • Circling, confusion, or difficulty in walking
  • Behavioral changes
  • Facial pain and associated vocalizations
  • Fainting or collapse
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Lethargy or weakness
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Panting or mouth breathing
  • Loud breathing
  • Weight loss
  • Diarrhea, vomiting, or nausea
  • Lack of appetite
  • Facial or nasal deformity or swelling
  • Vision loss or problems
  • Bulging eyes
  • Bad breath
  • Snoring
  • Snorting or sneezing
  • Ocular discharge or watery eyes
  • Nose bleeding
  • Nasal discharge or runny nose

Treatment for Nose and Sinus Cancer in Cats

The recommendation of the vet for the treatment may vary on the location, type, size, and spread of cancer. In some instances, treatment may not even be an option, and the diagnosis may be poor. It’s somewhat common for nose and sinus cancer in cats to need a multi-divided approach of treatment, since the method combination has shown to be way more effective than any single treatment plan.

Some of the more common treatment for the condition include the following:

  • Antibiotics- The cat might be prescribed with antibiotics if any secondary infection is present.
  • Photodynamic Therapy- This cancer treatment may use light therapy, which show effectiveness in some kinds of this cancer, but not with sarcomas.
  • Chemotherapy- This is a common cancer treatment is used in targeting and eradicating cancerous cells and prevent any further growths.
  • Radiation Therapy- Treatment with radiation is most effective and common to treat this kind of cancer. This may last for weeks or even months.
  • Surgical Intervention- Surgical procedure in removing the tumor might be necessary. This carries a moderate risk or side effects.

Nose Pad Cancer In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Squamous cell carcinoma or nose pad cancer in cats is a malignant kind of tumor, which mainly affects the squamous epithelial cells. In this instance, it’s a kind of tumor of the nose pad tissues or nasal planum. This kind of tumor is way more common in cats, rather than in dogs. The exposure to huffed chemicals may increase the risk of nasal tumors, including the indoor use of cigarettes, air fresheners, and coal. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about nose pad cancer in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and many more!

What is Nose Pad Cancer in Cats?

Nose pad cancer or squamous cell carcinoma is greatly curable if it’s treated and is diagnosed at an early time. The cat owners must examine their cat’s faces periodically to see if there is any presence of scabs or sores and seek some speedy vet treatment for rare symptoms.

Furthermore, the most typical form of cancer that is found on cat’s nose is the squamous cell carcinoma. This condition manifests as small sores with some scabs, which has the tendency to be irregularly shaped and flat. The lacerations might happen in only one localized area or different areas, and the immediate area might be pink in color and hairless.

Primarily, the marks frequently appear to be so harmless and might vanish for a period. Nonetheless, when left without any treatment, the lesions may come back and may likely ultimately leak and erupt fluid. Tissue and swelling damage, which might impact the area surrounding. Also, it is possible, which the cancer might metastasize to some other parts of the body and may prove to be lethal.


The main causes of nose pad cancer in cats is excessive UV rays exposure. This is what makes hairless and flippantly pigmented cats more vulnerable to the illness. Also, the indoor and outdoor cats, which spend a prodigious deal of the time in areas that are sunlit might also be more possible to develop nose pad cancer in cats. Some other possible causes of this condition include the following:

  • Exposure to inhaled irritants
  • Certain kinds of virus
  • Serious burn
  • Physical trauma


The main symptom of the nose pad cancer is the existence of scab-like protrusions. Some other symptoms of the condition may include the following:

  • Seizure
  • Behavioral changes
  • Disorientation
  • Inflammation and swelling in the area affected
  • Discharge from the eyes or nose
  • Nosebleeds
  • Reverse sneezing
  • Sneezing
  • Breathing via the mouth



The treating vet must start by discussing about the details with regards to the onset and austerity of the symptoms, as well as reviewing the medical records of the cat. Additionally, a standard lab tests may be ordered as well. This includes urinalysis, biochemistry profile, and complete blood count, in order to evaluate the overall health of the cat. In most of the cases, tests results are predictable to be normal. Also, a complete physical examination may be done as the veterinarian tries to rule out some other possible causes like dental disease, viral infection, or bacterial infection.

Moreover, a conclusive prognosis might be made by way of removing the fluid and tissue samples on general anesthesia and sending them to the laboratory for a biopsy. In case a tumor is present, CT scans or MRI might be ordered in evaluating the complexity of the tumor, as well as to discern whether it’s spread or not. This particular information may also assist in the development of a treatment plan.

Treatment for Nose Pad Cancer in Cats

 It is more possible that auspicious treatment selections may be available when the illness has been perceived in an early stage. In some cases, the veterinarian may recommend a consultation with a vet oncologist and they will determine the course of action, which may include the several kinds of treatment.


In some instances, patients might benefit from direct injection or chemotherapeutic substances through the area affected. This one is a controversial treatment plan as the effectiveness it has hasn’t been proven in the treatment of nose pad cancer. Chemotherapy medications might be toxic to humans as well, thus it’s significant to follow the instructions with regards to the administration thoroughly and closely.


This particular procedure may destroy the cancer cells by way of freezing them via tremendously low temperatures. The cryotherapy has been popular fir positive outcomes. When the cat is a probable candidate, it’s the treatment method, which a lot of vets prefer.

Radiation Therapy

This is most especially effective if there are many lesions, which haven’t spread through the deeper layers of the skin of the cat. It might also be recommendable when the lesions have progressed already.

Surgical Removal

The treating vet might suggest surgical removal of the tumor. A healthy tissue border or margin may be removed to make sure that the whole tumor has been removed. Most likely, this is effective in the disease’s earlier stage.

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