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Important Facts About Mucus In Cats That You Need To Know


Mucus in cats –especially in the respiratory tract may become too thick to allow a good amount of oxygen to pass into the mouth or nose, causing the oxygen levels of the blood to become treacherously low. This mucus is not something that you should worry about –this is a serious matter. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about mucus in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and many more others!

What is Mucus in Cats?

The most important function off the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and get rid of carbon dioxide. Nonetheless, sometimes, the appearance of mucus in cat’s respiratory system may become very thick to permit an appropriate oxygen level to pass into the mouth or nose, causing the blood’s oxygen levels to be treacherously low. The mucus in cats is the thick, clear material, which may line in the whole respiratory system. When the levels of oxygen become so low in the blood, vets may use the term hypoxia or anoxia in order to describe the illness.

A cat that is in the state of hypoxia may start to show some signs of respiratory anguish. This may increase the rate of breathing to recompense for the obstruction of mucus and low levels of oxygen. The cat may soon seriously fall ill from the lack of bloodstream oxygen and develop illnesses of the respiratory system.

Moreover, respiratory diseases are so common to cats of all ages, yet the very young and very old cats are at much higher risk for the contraction. Weak immunity at the beginning of the life of the kitten, as well as the inability to filter the respiratory system is what makes them more susceptible to the disease contamination due to the organisms found in the air.

In addition, when a cat breathes in air via the mouth or nose, it passes into every part of the respiratory tract, down through the lungs, in order to exchange the oxygen in the blood. The air the cat breathes is actually filled with huge dust particles, pollen, and dirt, which may damage the respiratory system. Therefore, the respiratory system has its own filtration system that protects itself.


Respiratory diseases that are related to mucus is frequently due to the inhalation of toxic substance, allergens, which cause parasites, immune-triggered reaction, bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Cats that live in shelters, pet shops, and boarding facilities are more vulnerable to developing mucus condition because of the fact that they’re housed in close areas with several cats. Similarly, if a cat is living in an unsanitary environments or smoke-filled home, their body may react by way of producing more mucus in order to filter these toxins.

Some of the causes of mucus in cats include the following:

  • Parasite infections
  • Fungal infections
  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infections
  • Airborne or smoke toxins
  • Tumors
  • Nasopharyngeal polyps
  • Chronic nasal disease
  • Collapsed trachea
  • Overcrowded shelter or boarding
  • Stress
  • Trauma
  • Birth abnormalities


Mucus is actually of clear appearance in a healthy cat, yet a cat with respiratory condition may have green, yellow, reddish, or brown mucus, which come from the nose. The excessive mucus may stuff up in the nasal passage in a nostril or two, making it hard for the cat to smell or breath. As the sense of smell of the cat is depleted, it may lose its appetite and decline to eat, ultimately losing weight.

Mucus in cats might also show symptoms like:

  • Nasal discharge
  • Dry or wet cough
  • Rapid breath
  • Labored breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Shallow breathing
  • Painful breath
  • Noisy breathing


An overview of the medical history of the cat and a physical exam are the first steps in the prognosis of mucus in the cat. The vet might use a scope in viewing the throat, nose, and airways, in order to determine if the mucus buildup is a problem of the lower or the upper respiratory tract. Make sure that you share the symptoms you have seen the cat showing at home, like coughing, heavy breathing, or wheezing. These symptoms may give the vet clues to the condition at hand. The diagnostic tests, which the vet might do next include the following:

  • Biopsy
  • Echocardiograph
  • Chest x-rays
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Blood gas analysis
  • Blood test
  • Mouth or nasal swab

Treatments for Mucus in Cats

If the cat is facing great breathing complications, the vet might place it in the oxygen chamber or put the oxygen mask. The vet may then prescribe or administer medication in order to reduce or thin the amount of mucus in the cat’s respiratory tract. If the vet thinks that the cat may cough the mucus up, an expectorant or cough medicine might be prescribed. Nonetheless, if the airways of the cat are so obstructed or narrow for a productive cough, a steroid or some other bronchodilator might be recommended. Antibiotics may also be prescribed to the cats who’ve been diagnosed with bacterial infection. Diuretics may also be given to patients who have accrued fluid in their lungs.

Polycythemia In Cats: What Should You Know About It?


Regarded as an irregular increase in the number of red blood cells in the circulatory system, the polycythemia is a fairly serious blood condition. Even more specifically, this entails a certain increase in PCV or packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, as well as in red blood cell count, beyond the position intervals, because of a transient, absolute, or relative increase in a number of be sociable red blood cells. In this article we will discuss some more interesting facts about polycythemia in cats including the cause, symptoms, prognosis and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Polycythemia in Cats?

In medical terms, the overproduction of red blood cells in cats is known as polycythemia. In this particular condition, the blood suddenly becomes viscous and thick because of the saturation of the red blood cells in the plasma. The thickened blood doesn’t easily flow via the smaller capillaries and veins in the body, thus resulting in the poor delivery of oxygen to the tissues. If you leave this without any diagnosis and treatment, polycythemia may lead to austere coronary signs, even heart failure.

In addition, polycythemia is categorized as transient, absolute, or relative. The transient polycythemia is due to splenic contraction that injects concentrated red blood cells through the circulation in a brief reaction to epinephrine –a hormone that reacts to anger, fear, and stress. On the other hand, the absolute polycythemia is characterized by absolute increase in the red blood cell mass circulating, as an outcome of a certain increase in the production of bone marrow. The relative polycythemia may develop when a reduction in the plasma volume, commonly due to dehydration, may produce a fair increase in the red blood cells circulating.

Moreover, the function of the red blood cells, as we know, is to deliver oxygen into the tissues of the body. The red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow of the cat when the erythropoietin, signals that there is too few oxygen levels in the blood. This is so common for cats to have very few red blood cells, thus resulting in anemia.


Polycythemia vera or real polycythemia, may arise impulsively in cats. Further, she cause of this main form of polycythemia in cats isn’t understood well, even up to this moment.

Additionally, polycythemia may also come secondary to a prior condition, like the following:

  • Abnormal circulation
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Severe lung disease
  • Bone marrow cancer
  • Kidney tumors
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Dehydration

If none of the aforementioned secondary conditions is present, it’s possible that the cause of the condition is polycythemia vera.


Due to the fact that the red blood cells influence all the systems of the body of a cat, the symptoms of polycythemia may become seemingly noticeable and somewhat unrelated symptoms. The symptoms of polycythemia include the following:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Blindness
  • Weakness
  • Lack of coordination
  • Seizures
  • Excessive urination and thirst
  • Sluggishness and lethargy

The symptoms of polycythemia in cats may progress in a gradual manner and it might be hard to notice for several months. It is so important that you consult a vet any given time the cat is showing some unexplained behavioral or physical changes.


The vet may likely to start the diagnostic process with a collection of complete medical history, as well as a complete physical examination, in order to understand better the symptoms of the cat. The examination of the vet may include the mucus membrane that might appear red. Also, the vet may palpate the torso of the cat, in order to estimate the capillary refill time, or the time it takes for the blood to fill the capillaries.

Furthermore, the vet may also collect blood and urine samples from the cat. Exam of the blood sample may show increased red blood cells, hemoglobin levels, and packed cell volume in cats with excessive red blood cell production. Also, the urine sample is commonly used in order to ascertain whether the polycythemia has started to affect the other organ systems or in ruling out some other diagnoses.

Treatment for Polycythemia

The treatment for polycythemia in cats may progress in two stages. The first one, red blood cells may be removed directly from the bloodstream of the cat to treat the acute polycythemia. The second one, the cause of the condition seen by the vet might be addressed, or in an instance of polycythemia vera, preventive treatment might be recommended.

In addition, phlebotomy or the removal of the blood from the body may be done. Vets may perform this process, replace any lost fluid, in order to prevent hypotension or dehydration –to improve the circulation and improve the blood. Further, contingent to the blood viscosity, 5-20 milliliters of blood may be removed for every kilogram of the weight of the cat.

Also, the PCV level of the cat is also monitored all throughout the process of determining when the goal RBC density has already been reached, commonly below 50% of the whole blood. Further, iron supplements might be administered as well for home utilization, in order to prevent anemia.

Important Facts About Mouth Inflammation and Ulcers In Cats That You Need To Know


Mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats –these are sore inflammatory conditions, which are seen in the mouth of cats. They create a tremendously painful condition. A cat with this kind of condition might have a hard time drinking or eating, might paw at its face, might have a bad breath, and drool. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about mouth inflammation and ulcers in felines or cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn about these and more!

What are Mouth Inflammation and Ulcers in Cats?

The mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats is also known as feline stomatitis. This is characterized by the gradual exacerbated inflammation of the oral mucosal tissues. Mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats etiology is rumored to be a kind of immune-mediated condition triggered by viral infections and dental disease, like feline calcivirus and feline herpesvirus.

Moreover, mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats may affect just about 3% of the cat’s population, specifically the purebred ones –they are the majority of cats that are affected. Feline stomatitis, even though rare, is so much of a painful and serious disease for cats, which may eventually become life-threatening when left untreated.

In addition, mouth inflammation and ulcers may create a greatly painful condition. A s what we said above, a cat with this condition might have a hard time drinking or eating, might paw at its face, might have a bad breath, and drool. The condition frequently causes the mouth of the cat to develop ulcers on the gums, lips, tongue, or back throat. This might even prevent the cat from opening its mouth. The mouth inflammation and ulcers in the early stages may resemble dental disease, plus it may highly be contagious, hence making an appointment to the vet is so important.


The precise cause of the mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats is actually not clear, yet that’s clear is that, the condition seems to be mediated by the immunity. Put simply, feline stomatitis thought to be the immune system’s overreaction, causing the cat’s immunity to attack bacteria in the mouth, as well as its oral tissues. Further, the immunity is being triggered by plaque in the mouth, thus making cat dental disease the major assumed cause. The condition may be due to a dental disease, yet also viruses and infection, including the following:

  • FeLV –Feline Leukemia Virus
  • FIV –Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
  • FHV-1 –Feline Herpesvirus-1
  • FCV –Feline Calcivirus
  • Bartenollosis
  • Periodontal Disease


Feline stomatitis in cats is one of the few conditions, which may cause a cat to show some clear signs of pain. This is in the nature of the cat to not express pain freely, yet mouth inflammation and ulcers us is very painful that cats frequently cry out in pain with just a simple yawn. It is also reported that is caused by this condition –the approach-avoidance behavior. This is actually a symptom, which may develop over time as the cat antedates the food consumption to be so painful. Some behavioral changes might be the first indications of feline stomatitis a cat owner may notice, since ulcers and inflammations in the mouth aren’t seen easily. Below are additional symptoms, which might be noted as well in cat with this condition:

  • Lesions or ulcers
  • Swollen, red gums and / or mouth
  • Poor hair coat
  • Ptyalism
  • Dysphagia
  • Halitosis
  • Weight loss
  • Facial pawing
  • Refusal to drink or eat
  • Dropping food while eating
  • Crying out or vocalization on the opening of the mouth
  • Austere pain


mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats

The prognosis of mouth inflammation and ulcers in cats starts with the examination of the medical history of the cat, including dental records and procedures in order to rule out the standard teeth conditions. A physical exam of the mouth might be completed to evaluate the ulceration level. Sedation might also be necessary during physical exam –this is to allow the vet in opening the cat’s mouth.

In order to determine the cause of the condition, further tests may be needed, including the following:

  • Biopsy
  • Histopathological evaluation
  • Retroviral test
  • Virus isolation test
  • Systemic disease evaluation

Treatments for Mouth Inflammation and Ulcers in Cats

The treatment of feline stomatitis in cats originally starts with the anti-inflammatory medication and pain control. Feline stomatitis is actually an overreaction of the cat’s immune system, so the vet might recommend an immunosuppressant drugs and steroid in order to repress the condition. Even though effective, treating the condition with therapeutic drugs is just temporary, hence, many veterinarians request total dental extractions.

One known trigger of the condition is plaque. This is a bacteria, which just stays in the mouth if it abides to the teeth. Thus, a total extraction of the teeth of the cat is the lone possible cure of the cat condition. Unluckily, a total extraction of the cat’s teeth is costly, drastic and after, it might not cure the feline stomatitis.

Important Facts About Mucopolysaccharidoses In Cats That You Need To Know


Mucopolysaccharidoses in cats –a group of metabolic conditions, which is characterized by the accretion of mucpolysaccharides or glycosaminoglycans –of GAGs, because of the weakened lysosomal enzymes functions. It’s the mucopolysaccharides that assist in building cartilage, bones, corneas, tendons, as well as the fluid that’s responsible for lubricating the joints. The more susceptible cat breeds to this condition are the Siamese and Domestic shorthair cats. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about mucopolysaccharidoses in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, as well as treatments. Read on to learn about these and many more!

What is Mucopolysaccharidoses in Cats?

The mucopolysaccharidoses is a group of 5 different lysosomal conditions. The lysosomes, as we know, are the storage sacs in the cells, which hold the enzymes necessary in digesting large molecules like the lipids, glycoproteins, etc. –to be recycled later. In the event that the storage function is properly carried out, the enzymes aren’t present in digesting large molecules and the animal cell is left with the glycosaminoglycan accumulation. These glycosaminoglycans are essential in promoting the cell growth, playing a vital role in the cat’s physiological functions and vertebral structure.

In addition, the mucopolysaccharidoses is a condition, which is being inherited from the mother or the father of a cat. The condition may affect how the cat grows, obvious through deformities and dwarfism of the facial structures of the cat. When both parents carry the MPS or mucopolysaccharidoses gene mutation, the kitten may develop the symptoms in as early 6 to 8 weeks of age and the hind limb paralysis might happen at only eight months. Nonetheless, if only one of the parents carry the mutated gene, the kitten may appear fairly healthy and might just have minimal skeletal deformities. The mucopolysaccharidoses in cats is irrepressible and typically affects the cat breeds like domestic shorthair cats, Siamese, Birmans, as well as Ragdolls.


The mucopolysaccharidoseus a hereditary condition, which is passed into the genetic makeup of the parent to the offspring from a generation to another. The precise cause on why the mutation is present is actually not known, but inbreeding may seem to be a common link. The mucopolysaccharidoses in cats is not curable.


The mucopolysaccharidoses may cause a cat to accrue huge amount of glycosaminoglycans and polysaccharide. The glycosaminoglycans invade the skin cells, as well as the cells of the bone marrow and white blood cells, th8us causing a feline to develop the following:

  • Reduced flexibility
  • Thickening of the heart valves
  • Enlarged liver
  • Corneal clouding
  • Mental disorders
  • Dwarfism
  • Stunted growth
  • Paralysis
  • Bone degeneration
  • Skeletal abnormalities
  • Facial deformities, which is characterized by a wide space in between eyes, flattened face, and small ears


mucopolysaccharidoses in cats

The prognosis of mucopolysaccharidoses in cats may start with the evaluation of the medical history of the cat, as well as its breeding background. This condition is hereditary and starts with the parents of the cat. Therefore, if you have an information on the family tree of the cat, it might be beneficial to bring them with you in your appointment to the vet. The vet might take some time to discuss the recent symptoms and behavior of the cat, while they physically assess the cat via a physical examination.

Moreover, mucopolysaccharidoses is a mutation in the cells of the cat, including its blood cells, hence the vet may likely to examine the urine of the cat, and even its blood. A blood smear test may allow the veterinarian to have a closer look at the cat’s white blood cells, which might have granules and vacuoles existent. An enzyme test may eventually pinpoint the prognosis, since the lysosomal enzyme that acts topsy-turvy in the mucopolysaccharidoses, may be measured in the blood or in the liver. Bone radiographs might also be done in evaluating the type or stage of mucopolysaccharidoses the cat has.

Treatment for Mucopolysaccharidoses in Cats

At this point in time, there is actually no effective way in treating the condition, other than those that are used in catering the symptoms of the cat. Nonetheless, cats diagnosed with mucopolysaccharidoses are great candidates for the enzyme replacement therapy and gene replacement therapy. These therapies are executed via a bone marrow transplant and might be somewhat expensive. The vet might also recommend surgery rather, in order to give the cat a much better life quality.

Cats with mucopolysaccharidoses may have a positive recovery after a replacement therapy, yet results might vary. Managing the mucopolysaccharidoses may prove to be so hard over time, since bone disease is rare in cats as they age. A feline with this malady might not most probably stay inside the cat in order to prevent any injuries and a soft diet may be recommended.

A cat with mucopolysaccharidoses must not also be used as a breeding stock, in order to prevent dispersing the mutation. DNA testing for mucopolysaccharidoses is available at the local lab provider, so talk to your vet to test other cats!

Deafness In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Loss of hearing or deafness in cats may be classified as either a partial or complete hearing loss. In case the cat is deaf at birth, it’ll be ostensible to you when the cat’s still at a very young age. Furthermore, cats, which have blue irises and white hair appear to be specifically susceptible to congenital deafness. Read on to this article to learn more about deafness in cats.

Deafness in Cats: What is this feline condition?

Deafness, as we know, is the inability to hear sounds. Cats may experience partial or total deafness in one or even both ears. Further, the ear is made up of a lot of parts, which receive, as well as transmit sounds. When one or more of these ear structures, just like the auditory nerve or ear drum, aren’t able to work properly, hearing loss or deafness may occur. Moreover, the incapacity to hear may be congenital. This means that it happens at birth.

Some breeds like Angoras, Ragdolls, and Persian cats are at a much higher risk of the congenital deafness. Furthermore, it may also be acquired –meaning, it is developed later in life because of factors like toxicity, trauma, or disease. Deafness, by itself isn’t life-threatening. However, the underlying cause of it may be lethal. In case a cat is showing signs of deafness or hearing loss, consult a vet immediately, in order to determine the cause.

Furthermore, there are different types of deafness, which may happen in cats, contingent on why sound isn’t transmitted into the brain. The different types of deafness in cats include the following:

  • Deafness due to aging –this happens because of the degeneration in the ear over a period of time.
  • Nerve deafness –this happens when the auditory nerve is not able to transmit the sounds. This is the type of deafness, which happens congenitally, yet may be due to some other factors.
  • Conduction deafness –this happens when the sounds aren’t able to reach the auditory nerve, commonly because of some kind of blockage in the ears.

Causes of Cat Deafness

A lot of different causes of deafness in cats exist. It may be in connection to some other disorder or disease, or be due to trauma or some other issues. The common causes of the condition include the following:

  • Aging
  • Ear mites
  • Toxins
  • Ruptured eardrum
  • Infection
  • Tumors
  • Inflammation
  • Congenital

Symptoms of Cat Deafness

The main sign and symptoms of deafness in cat is the lack of response to sound. This may often be hard to detect, most especially if the hearing loss is gradual or only happens in just one ear. In the cats with congenital deafness, symptoms are commonly apparent so early in life, even within the initial weeks.

The symptoms include:

  • Pawing at the ears
  • Redness or inflammation in the ear
  • Frequently startles on signs
  • Not woken by loud sounds
  • Not responding when called
  • Very loud or louder than the usual vocalizing
  • Lack of response to day-to-day noises

Prognosis of Cat Deafness

In case you observe the symptoms of deafness in cats, consult a vet immediately. Even though deafness is frequently not treatable, a lot of the conditions, which cause deafness may be treated when caught early. This is essential in reducing the amount of ear damage. Further, the veterinarian may need to deliberate the cat’s medical history, including the recent traumas, medical treatments, or some other causes of deafness, which might be appropriate to the cat. Make sure to prepare in discussing the symptoms you may have observed, as well as the time frame wherein they have been happening.

Furthermore, the veterinarian may also perform a thorough physical examination of the cat and its ears. They might also use an X-ray or some other imaging to look at the structures of the ear, as well as identify any existing masses or some other issues. A sensitivity examination might be done in determining the degree of the deafness.

Treatment for Cat Deafness

The treatment of deafness in cats will be contingent on the kind of deafness they’re suffering from, as well as its cause. The congenital deafness and a lot other causes of nerve deafness are terminal, and the incapacity to hear might be permanent. Furthermore, the causes of a lot other types of conductive deafness are curable. The veterinarian may treat the cause that may restore hearing, as well as prevent total deafness. Even with the proper medical response, the cat’s hearing loss might still be permanent.

The treatment options may include the following:

Ear Mite Treatments

In order to treat ear mites, which are causing the deafness, the vet will systematically clean the ear. This task requires a professional, in order to prevent additional damage. They’ll also treat the mites using a prescription drop. 


The bacterial infections, which cause deafness in cats may be treated using an antibiotic. This kind of medication will work in kill off the bacteria that cause the infection. Without this bacteria causing issues, the inflammation and some other issues will vanish and the hearing might totally or partially be restored. 

Destructive Behavior In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


It is common for cats to scratch things. They tend to do this to sharpen their claws, as well as exercise their feet. Further, it is also normal for cats to spend time licking themselves, as this is their way of cleaning themselves. When the cats lick of scratch the wrong things and don’t respond to the discouragement, they’re identified as having a destructive behavior problem. However, not all of the destructive behavior in cats is the same.

When a cat scratches the wrong things but doesn’t have any other symptoms, this is commonly a main destructive behavior. Contrariwise, cats, which spend too much time scratching or licking at things, likely have a secondary destructive behavior. Both of the types of destructive behavior may lead to various problems with some other organs, just like the intestines and stomach, especially when left without any treatment.

Destructive Behavior in Cats: What is this?

It is quite frustrating for cat owners when their cat engages in behaviors that destroys or damages property. These destructive behavior in cats include urinating on ceding and clothing, scratching carpet and furniture, as well as chewing on houseplants. Some might have mistakenly concluded that these particular behaviors are normal for the cat and that they‘re are just the cat’s way of getting revenge or acting out against the owner. However, the truth is that these behaviors are distinctive behaviors, which are part of the cat’s natural sense of curiosity, as well as a desire to play. Luckily, these destructive behaviors in cats may be controlled.

Causes of Cat’s Destructive Behavior

The destructive behaviors in cats develop due to a mental, physical, as well as emotional discomfort or trauma. Some of the causes of the destructive behavior in cats include the following:

Emotional Trauma

In the similar way that emotional trauma that affects the human behavior, it affects cats. Cats, which were maltreated by the previous owners may become shy, or they might develop an obsessive-compulsive behavior, just like pulling or licking their fur. The similar conditions may be caused by anxiety and stress in cats.

Curiosity and Boredom

When a cat is simply curious or bored, it’ll start on chewing on whatever is around him or her. The destructive chewing may also be due to a nutritional deficit.

Poor Training

Violence in cats is often something they learn as kittens. Humans may play with them in a rough way and when the kitten bites them, they tend to ignore it due to how small and cute they are. Unluckily, cute scratching and biting from the kitten may also become so painful as the kitten grows and become adult.


Cats, which have feline hyperesthesia or rippling skin disorder, might howl at night. Cats with the bowel infections or urinary tract infections might not have the essential control over their own bladder and may urinate in various locations.

Symptoms of Cat’s Destructive Behavior

The symptoms of destructive behavior in cats might be seen when they show the following behaviors:

  • Cat urine problems
  • Shyness
  • OCD
  • Destructive chewing
  • Aggression towards other animals
  • Seeking attention

Prognosis of Cat’s Destructive Behavior

The cat owners are commonly the first ones to identify the destructive behavior in their cat. Vets may work with the owner by way of monitoring whatever changes in the cat’s behavior. Additionally, an assessment on the behavior of the cat must be included in each visit to the vet. Throughout the assessment, the cat owner may be encouraged in voicing out any concerns they have regarding the cat’s behavior.

Moreover, vets must make a standardized behavioral history form, as well as include this in the cat’s medical record. This is what will allow them in tracking any behavioral changes accurately, as well as address any problems in the earlier stages of development. Furthermore, the vet must take special note of how the kittens react during the initial examination. Research will show that if the cat shows an abnormal level of fear during a medical examination at eight weeks old. Also, they will have the same fear at their 18th month. Pathological fear isn’t grown up.

In addition, one part of the prognosis process includes the vet understanding when the cat’s behavior deviates from the norm. As well as identifying cats, which are at risk for the development of the abnormal behaviors.

Treatment for Cat’s Destructive Behavior

Due to the fact that the cause for each of the destructive behavior in cats is dissimilar, there is actually no treat-one-treat-all remedy. Vets may look with the cat owners, in order to identify the environmental issues, which lead to stress, depression, anxiety, as well as subsequent destructive behaviors. The successful treatment depends on the correction of the bad behaviors soon after the onset of the condition, most especially when these happen during the kittenhood. Aside from the implementation of the behavior modifying techniques, a vet might prove pharmacologic intervention in the reduction of anxiety or to address a condition.

Important Facts About Muscle Contraction Disease In Cats That You Need To Know


Muscle contraction disease or myoclonus in cats is a condition, wherein a certain part of a muscle, whole muscle, or a group of muscles contracts in a repetitive, rhythmic, involuntary, and coarse manner at a rate of up to 60 times every minute. These irregular contractions happen because of nervous dysfunction and most typically affects muscle groups involved in munching and/or any kind of skeletal limb muscles. This condition is unusually seen in cats and is way more common in dogs. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about muscle contraction disease in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, as well as treatments. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Muscle Contraction Disease in Cats?

Muscle contraction disease in cats is also called myoclonus. This is a neurological muscle disease, which causes rhythmic and repetitive muscular retrenchments of a group or two of muscles. This condition is through to be triggered by the abnormal pacemaker activity in the neurons because of infections, like coronavirus meningoencephalitis. The diagnosis for congenital muscle contraction disease in cats is somewhat poor and vet consultation is recommended for cats suspected to have this condition.

Furthermore, muscle contraction disease in felines is a malady, which causes the cat’s muscles to suddenly contract without the cat aiming to move that particular muscle. You might notice this particular involuntary movement in the cat’s neck, head, abdomen, or legs. In addition, the muscles might contract vertically or lengthwise on the body of the cat. If the condition affects the jaw, you might notice what’s known as the chewing gum fit. This is where the jaw’s rhythmic movements look like a person that’s chewing a stick of gum. Specific infections and medications may cause muscle contraction disease in cats, while other cats are solely born with this condition.


  • Stimulus-sensitive myoclonus –In this type, the muscle contracts due to noise, touch, or noise.
  • Active myoclonus –The involuntary muscle shriveling are caused by the movement of the cat or the want of the cat to move.
  • Congenital myoclonus –The feline is innate with involuntary myoclonus and spasms happen for no specific reason.
  • Nocturnal myoclonus –The sleep-prompted involuntary muscle contractions.


There is actually no one cause of the muscle contraction disease in cats, yet relatively a group of maladies thought to cause the condition. Further, viral infections like distemper and bacterial infections, which affect the brain, like meningitis, are believed to be the most typical causes of the condition.

Moreover, intoxications, lesions, metabolic abnormalities, and the central nervous system cofactor deficiency have been known to instigate muscle contraction disease in cats. Last of all, muscle contraction disease might also be congenital, a condition that a cat might be born with.


The symptoms of muscle contraction disease in cats are so clear. The cat owners might be able to perceptibly see the condition causing the muscles of the cat’s abdomen, neck, jaw, neck, or legs. This muscle contractions are commonly short-term, lasting for only a few seconds from the time that it started. Additionally, the rhythmic, involuntary contractions may cause the cat to be  and it might misstep upon walking. It isn’t rare for the feline condition to affect the cats while they’re sleeping, brusquely waking the cat up.


muscle contraction disease in cats

The vet may need to go through any past injuries, surgical procedures, and illnesses the cat has had over its entire lifetime. Reviewing its medical history may also help in pinpointing whatever medications, which have been utilized on the cat, which might have triggered the contractions of the muscles.

In addition, a physical exam, urinalysis, and blood test may possibly be a part of the diagnostic procedure of the cat. Also, these tests assist in pinpointing any abnormalities. A CT scan or MRI isn’t rare in diagnosing the cases contraction disease , since the vet may likely want to evaluate the brain. The vet might also want to evaluate the spinal fluid with the use of a fine aspiration needle or spinal tap. The spinal cord infection, like meningitis, may be detected via the spinal fluid evaluation.

Treatment for Muscle Contraction Disease in Cats

The treatment plan for felines that have muscle contraction disease may vary from a case to another, this is because the condition may be due to a causal health problems or idiopathic reasons. Commonly, antibiotics are typically recommended to patients who have bacterial infections, causing the cat to show some involuntary contractions, while viral infections are being treated with the use of fluid therapy and some other medications.

Inflammatory medications might also be recommended to the cats experiencing brain swelling or the spinal column. Additionally, the most proper form of treatment may not legitimately be reputable without any examination of a licensed vet.

In addition, the muscle contraction disease in cats commonly seize or become lesser frequent after the cat has received vet treatment. cats born with this condition don’t need the best long-term diagnosis, since there is no definitive treatment for the condition itself.

Dementia In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


With the advancing age comes a lot of disorders and complications. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome or dementia in cats is one of these conditions, which is directly in relation to the aging of the cat’s brain. This eventually leads to the changes in memory and learning, as well as reduced responsiveness to stimuli. Even though the initial symptoms of the condition are mild, they progressively worsen over time. This is also called the cognitive decline. In this article, we will be discussing more about this. If you want to learn more, give this article a read.

Dementia in Cats: What is this feline condition?

Dementia in cats has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia in the aged humans. Consequently, you need to know what to do when the condition affects the cat.

As the cat ages, health disorders and complications are so inevitable. One of the major health conditions that are highly possible to affect an aging cat is dementia. This is also known as cognitive dysfunction that is simply a decline in the various brain-related abilities of the cat, including its response to retention of memory, stimuli, as well as general awareness. Additionally, the cat’s immune system grows much weaker.

Causes of Dementia

The exact cause of dementia in cats hasn’t been determined yet. Nonetheless, the genetics of the cats might actually play a part in the onset of the condition. Additionally, there are some other factors, which may greatly contribute to the development of the condition. This includes the following:

  • Tumors
  • Metabolic condition
  • Inflammation of the tissues
  • Trauma

Symptoms of Dementia

In case a cat has hit 10 years old, the owner is likely to start noticing the signs of dementia. Nonetheless, advances in the vet medicine have already gone a long way in increasing and making the lives of the cats longer to more than 20 years. Hence, the following symptoms do not mean the end of life for the cat.

  • Waking at night to make loud noises
  • Inconsistent sleep cycle
  • Excessive licking
  • Staring at nothing for a long period of time
  • Forgetfulness of some familiar routes
  • Disregard to urinating and defecting training
  • Increased irritability
  • Reduced appetite
  • Disinterest in playing
  • Excessive sleeping

Prognosis of Dementia

In giving prognosis for dementia in cats, the cat’s health history is so important. You’ll need to let the vet know the date when you first get to notice the condition and any of the possible causes. After this, a physical examination will be conducted for analysis of the whole condition of the cat.

Moreover, the vet may carry out some tests, including blood tests, x-rays and ultrasounds. The aim of this is to make sure that there are no other causes to the changes on the behavior of the cat, aside from dementia. Additionally, a specialist in the animal behavior might be contacted in case the examination of the cerebrospinal fluid and MRI on the cat doesn’t show any damages on the brain.

Bear in mind that noticing of the indications alone doesn’t confirm the existence of the condition in the cat. For example, aversion to water and food may also mean that the cat is in real pain. Additionally, the older cats greatly cut down on their time playing, preferring to just sleep in their free time. This does not mean they have dementia –they are just too old to play with so much verve as the young cats.

Treatment for Dementia

When the vet picks out dementia as the most probable cause of the behavioral changes in the cat, he or she might give prescription aimed in eliminating the anxiety, just like fluoxetine. The medications also help in reducing or fighting off the effects of the malady.

When the doubts of dementia in cats have finally been removed, the cat owner need to ensure that their cat gets a perfect kind of therapy, as well as support for the remainder of its own life. Luckily, the responsibility of the health of the cat isn’t wholly left to the vet. There are a lot of things for you to do in the pursuit of making sure the cat’s cognitive functions are being improved and you have the chance in giving their best.

Moreover, the diet of the cat is a great determinant in reducing the effects of senility in the cat’s health. Further, the inclusion of vitamin C and E and antioxidants in it may do so much more good than harms. The diet must also have additional nutrients like flavonoids, carnitine, omega-3 fatty acids, beta-carotene, as well as selenium.

Bear in mind that the treatment for dementia in cats isn’t designed to totally get rid of the condition. What matters most is the period of time in between the actual treatment and the onset. By way of making an early appointment to the vet, you’ll need an upper hand against the condition as it’ll be easier to manage and treat it. c

Nose And Sinus Inflammation In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


The inflammation of a cat’s nose is medically known as rhinitis. Meanwhile, sinusitis refers to the nasal passage inflammation. Both of these medical terms may cause the development of mucus discharge. With lengthy inflammation, bacterial infections are so common. In this article, we will discuss these two – nose and sinus inflammation in cats including the causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn about these and more!

What is Nose and Sinus Inflammation in Cats?

Nose and sinus inflammation in cats is a typical and at times, serious problem felines experience. It may be a main condition that is severe in nature. However, more frequently, it’s actually a result of a systemic condition like an infection. Sporadically, the condition may be idiopathic, which means, the source is not known and makes the treatment even much harder

Moreover, chronic rhinosinusitis might persist over the lifetime of the cat. This can be a challenge in managing and there’s no known treatment. Nevertheless, nose and sinus inflammation in cats is seldom lethal to cats and is frequently treated easily with some antibiotics unless there’s chronic, as well as underlying condition, which comes with it. In these kinds of situations, the treatment may include addressing the causes and symptoms of the acknowledged condition.

In the event that the mucus membrane lining of the nose is being inflamed, the malady is known as rhinitis. Further, the swelling of the sinus lining is called sinusitis. These two conditions frequently take place together, developing rhinosinusitis. However, this don’t happen all the time. When left without any treatment, the malady may constrain the mucus membranes’ function on the nasal passage, leaving the lungs in handling the job of filtering of microorganisms and dust. These may frequently lead to the upper respiratory infection.


Feline calcivirus and feline herpes viral rhinotracheitis are the most typical causes of nose and sinus inflammation in cats, even though other viruses may be at fault as well. Furthermore, bacterial infections frequently happen after the first onset of the viral infection. Some other possible causes of the conditions include the following:

  • Cancer,
  • Impaired immune system,
  • Genetic defects like palate abnormalities,
  • Sinus or nasopharyngeal masses including polyps,
  • Vasculitis,
  • Systemic hypertension,
  • Trauma,
  • Dental disease,
  • Outdoor and indoor allergies,
  • Congested nasolacrimal duct in the nose,
  • Existence of foreign object,
  • Parasites, as well as
  • Fungal infections, particularly Cryptococcosis.


A sneezing and runny nose might be the first signs of nose and sinus inflammation in cats. You need to dismiss the condition as a lone common cold if you see the following symptoms as well:

  • Loss of appetite,
  • Vomiting,
  • Coughing,
  • Labored breathing, perceptibly with an open mouth breathing,
  • Conjunctivitis,
  • Tears and discharge from the eyes,
  • Respiratory noise while inhaling,
  • Dehydration,
  • Nose bleeding,
  • Stuffy nose,
  • Sneezing, often episodic, as well as
  • Nasal discharge.


One basic physical examination might be first directed. This may include the nose, eyes, ears, mouth, and nasal cavity. The vet might look for some evidence not just of swelling but of polyps too, infection, as well as dental disease. If clinical indications show any of these, additional tests might be necessary in identifying the causal condition.

Furthermore, a urinalysis, serum biochemistry, and complete blood count may be done in testing for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus are typical causes of sinusitis and chronic rhinitis. These may be detected via blood tests. The blood pressure levels of the cat may be monitored, in order to find any indications of hypertension, as well as a polymerase chain reaction test, which may be done in checking for calcivirus and herpesvirus 1 –both of which are common causes of lower and upper respiratory disease.

If there are anything that concerns you, the vet might decide and perform CT scan, MRI scan, or C-ray of the skull, in order to check the nasal sinuses, passages, bone health, dental health, and more. Further, these tests –the doctor will conduct under general anesthesia.

Treatment for Nose and Sinus Inflammation

Even though there is no treatment for nose and sinus inflammation yet, systemic and topical antibiotics together with anti-inflammatory medications and antihistamine may help in reducing the symptoms in the mild through acute cases. The length of the treatment is contingent on the response of the cat. The chronic conditions might be treatable symphonically.

When the condition has austerely progressed it is important to administer intravenous fluids, as well as nutritional supports, which are given via a feeding tube in preventing or stopping weight loss. The treatment may then be addressed even more directly through the causal condition.

In addition, if the antibiotics medication show no effects on the viruses, the vet might choose to administer feline herpesvirus vaccine, which assist in minimizing and shortening the recurrence of the symptoms of the infection in the near future. Additionally, iisn’t a preventive measure and is just meant to diminish the symptoms on the cat.

Degenerative Joint Disease In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease in cats is referred to as the permanent and progressive long-term deterioration of the cartilage that surrounds the joints. Further, arthritis is a medical terminology for the inflammation of the joints. On the other hand, osteoarthritis is the term that denotes a form of chronic joint inflammation due to a deterioration of the joint cartilage. In this article, we will be discussing more about this feline condition –read on to this article to learn more!

Degenerative Joint Disease in Cats: What is this feline condition?

A cat that has DJD or Degenerative Joint Disease might show reluctance or difficulty in moving. In case the cat is older or has previously suffered from an injury, becomes less active, or appears to be limping, contact the vet for some examinations.

Moreover, degenerative joint disease in cats or osteoarthritis is a chronic condition due to the loss of the smooth cartilage that’s found in the joint. When the cartilage cushion wears away, the bones start to rub against one another. This is what leads to pain and inflammation. Further, osteoarthritis may be a normal part of the wears and tears of aging, or the effect of a joint or injury abnormality.

There are two types of degenerative joint disease in cats, they are as follows:

  • Primary Degenerative Joint Disease –with this kind of DJD, there is actually no known underlying cause. This shows mostly in the older cats because of age-related degeneration.
  • Secondary Degenerative Joint Disease –this kind of DJD happens as the result of another condition, including a congenital or genetic abnormality or an injury

Causes of DJD in Cats

With the primary degenerative joint disease in cats, there is no primary cause. Furthermore, the arthritis develops from the normal wear and tear due to aging. On the other hand, the secondary degenerative disease might arise from different causes.

Moreover, congenital or genetic abnormalities –some cat breeds are more prone to the conditions like patellar luxation or dysplasia, which may contribute to the condition.

  • Obesity –an increase in the weight on the joints may increase the effects of some other causative factors.
  • Injuries –dislocations, traumas, and fractures to the joints or bones may lead to joint disease,

Symptoms of DJD in Cats

Because of the relatively small size and light weight, cats commonly tolerate degenerative joint disease in cats better than dogs or even humans. The symptoms might be more subtle than the other animals. In case you suspect that your own cat is developing arthritis, watch for the following signs:

  • Avoiding contact with animals or people
  • Irritability when stoked or handled
  • Poor grooming
  • Difficulty in using the litter box
  • Reluctance or refusal to jump up or down
  • Stiffness, especially after resting or sleeping
  • Difficulty in going up or down the stairs
  • Reduced activity

Prognosis of DJD in Cats

In case you suspect that the cat has a DJD, contact the vet. Since cats may generally be resistant to being handled, it may be hard to diagnose arthritis due to just a physical examination. The doctor may want a complete account of the observations, in order to help confirm the existence of degenerative joint disease in cats. Let the vet know if the cat has been going outside its litter box, isolating from other animals and people, or spending time resting or laying. Additionally, you also need to include details about whether the cat has changing sleeping areas, in order to avoid climbing or jumping, appears to be slow or stiff when getting up, or has seemed to be more temperamental.

Moreover, the examination may involve manipulating, as well as palpating the joints, in order to check for any signs of discomfort and pain. For a conclusive diagnosis, the vet might choose to x-ray the affected limbs for the signs of the condition. Even though it is not necessary to diagnose arthritis, the doctor might also run some blood tests in screening for any underlying causes, as well as to make sure that the cat can tolerate certain medications.

Treatment for DJD in Cats

In the actual fact, there I currently no known treatment for the degenerative joint disease in cats. Nonetheless, there are some ways that you can control the level of pain the cat feels, as well as help in slowing the progression of the condition, with a combination of medications, alternative treatments, dietary supplements, diet, and environmental changes, you might be able to help improve the cat’s quality of life.

Furthermore, physical therapy designed for the maintenance or increase of the joint motion is so essential and might be done with some motion exercises, massage, and swimming. The exercise designed in strengthening the muscle tone is also beneficial, just like wearing heat pads.

You need to keep on monitoring the symptoms of the cat, as the degenerative joint disease in cats is likely to progress with time.

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