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What Should You Know About Heart Attack In Cats?


So much like us, humans, a blockage in the blood flow through the myocardium or the muscular wall of the heart, is medically called heart attack, or in medical term, myocardial infarction. This is commonly because of the blood clot formation in the heart or in the blood vessels. This may cause premature death of a certain portion of the myocardium. This particular condition is actually rare to happen in both cats and dogs. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about heart attack in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn more about these!

What is a Heart Attack in Cats?

Coronary artery blockage and disease are nonconforming in cats because of the way that a body of cat processes the consumed fats. For this reason, heart attack in cats are very rare. When a heart attack really happen, nonetheless, it might be fatal.

Moreover, the myocardium is also known as the muscular tissue, which composes the heart muscle. When a myocardial infarction or heart attack does occur, the myocardium is being cut off from the reception of important nutrients and oxygen coming from the coronary arteries. This commonly takes place because of a blood clot. Without oxygen, the different parts of the heart may prematurely die. This will then cause the heart to become weak or fail to its regular role.


A heart attack may happen when the blood flow is being cut off from the myocardium. This may either be due to thromboembolism –blood clot or cardiomyopathy –heart muscle disease.


The symptoms of a heart attack commonly appear so suddenly. The symptoms may include the following:

  • Sudden death
  • Hyperactivity
  • Seizures
  • Lameness or inability to walk
  • Low-grade fever
  • Skipped heartbeats or heart palpitations
  • Slowed or increased heart rate
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Collapse or fainting
  • Lethargy
  • Extreme weakness


The vet may need the complete health history of the cat. This may include any history of heart disease, a fairly accurate time and date when the symptoms first appeared, and a complete list of symptoms. The vet may then examine the cat physically, listen its breathing and heart using a stethoscope, take its blood pressure and pulse, as well as look for abnormalities in its gait, which might signal a blood clot. Further, the vet might also pay attention to whatever signs of muffled heart sounds and heart murmurs there are, which are actually an indication of fluid in the pericardium. This is the sac, which surrounds the heart muscle.

A complete blood count, urinalysis, and biochemical profile may also be done. These laboratories may help the vet in identifying the systemic conditions, which might have caused the attack or assist the vet in ruling out some other conditions, which have the same cardiac symptoms like hypothyroidism.

An echocardiogram -ECG and electrocardiogram –EKG may also be performed in the cat. The EKG will look at the electrical activity and may assist in identifying the abnormal heart rhythms and blockages. On the other hand, ECG is an ultrasound for the heart muscle –this may look for any abnormalities in the pericardium, heart valves, and whatever heart muscle maladies there is. An x-ray of the chest might also be taken to see if there are any irregularities in the cavity of the lung.

If the tests are indecisive concerning to the condition, which caused the heart attack to happen, the vet might want the heart rate of the cat to be monitored for a much longer period of time.

Treatments for Heart Attack in Cats


The cat may be given some medication in a vet clinic, in order to dissolve a clot and restore the blood flow through the heart. The vet might also prescribe some medications in treating the underlying condition of the cat, which caused the attack to happen. Digitalis, beta-blockers, and carious other anti-arrhythmic drugs may help in slowing down the heart rate of the cat and put them in a proper level.

Pacemaker Implant

Cats who got slow heart rate due to the lost tissues in a heart attack might need a pacemaker installed in them. This may be placed in the abdomen of the cat during surgery. The lead may surgically be attached through the outside of the heart through a small diaphragm incision. This woks by way of sending a small electrical signal into the heart. this may keep the heart beating in a normal manner.

Oxygen Therapy

Cats that have had heart attacks may need to get oxygen therapy in the clinic to make sure that sufficient amount of oxygen is being delivered all over the body. The oxygen may be given to the cat through a nasal cannula or facemask. This may keep on going up until the heart is already capable of functioning properly and delivers oxygen all over the body on its own.

Important Facts About Pyuria In Cats That You Need To Know


Pyuria in cats is a medical condition, which may be in association with any pathologic process, which causes death or injury to a cat. What leads to these is the tissue damage that provokes the oozing inflammation. Moreover, pyuria is often characterized by the evidence of increased red and white blood cells, as well as protein in the urine. The huge numbers of white blood cells in the emptied urine samples may be an indication of an active inflammation somewhere along the urogenital tract. Read on to this article to learn more about this feline condition.

Pyuria in Cats: What is this feline condition?

Pus in the urine, or pyuria in cats, isn’t an illness in itself, yet a clinical symptom of existent health conditions, rather. Moreover, pus in the urine is due to an infection of fungus, bacteria, or yeast located somewhere in the lower or upper urinary tract system of the cat. Further, the pus itself is a mixture of proteins and white blood cells sent from the cat’s immune system, in order to fight off the bacterial infection. In addition, the existence of the pus in the urine is due to an infectious or noninfectious pathological processes, which causes inflammation, cell damage, as well as an increased immune response. Further, the pus in the urine or pyuria in cats is an indication that a cat is suffering from an austere infection, which may just be diagnosed by a professional vet.

If you happen to notice that the cat’s urine has a strong smell and appears cloudy, it might have a pus in its urine. Moreover, the changes in the urine might be the lone symptom a cat owner may notice, as pyuria in cats isn’t an illness or disease, yet an indication of a much larger condition impending. Additionally, a cat, which has pus in its urine is a sign of an infection, as pus is a strangely large buildup of white blood cells. The immunity only releases extra white blood cells when an infection is detected. Common causes of pus in the urine in cats could be a bladder infection, kidney infection, or infection of the reproductive organs.

Causes of Cat Pyuria


  • Tumor
  • Stones in the ureter, as well as
  • Ureteritis or the inflammation of the ureter


  • Immune-mediated
  • Trauma
  • Tumor
  • Kidney stones, as well as
  • Inflammation of the branches, renal area, or recesses of the pelvis of the kidney, as well as the pelvis, particularly because of the local fungal, bacterial, or parasitic, infection


  • Foreign body
  • Trauma
  • Tumor
  • Urethrolith or the stones in the urethra, as well as
  • Urethritis or the inflammation of the urethra

Urinary Bladder

  • Drugs
  • Urethral obstruction
  • Trauma
  • Tumor
  • Urocystolith or the stones in the bladder or kidney, as well as
  • Cystitis or the inflammation of the bladder

Penis or Prepuce

  • Foreign body
  • Tumor, as well as
  • Inflammation of the glans penis and overlying prepuce


  • Tumor, as well as
  • Prostatitis or abscesses


  • Trauma
  • Foreign body
  • Tumor, as well as
  • Vaginitis or the inflammation of the vagina


  • Buildup of infected material in the uterine cavity

Risk Factors

  • Any condition process, therapy, or dietary factor, which predisposes a cat to the formation of metabolic stones
  • Any condition process, diagnostic process, or therapy, which alters the normal urinary tract defenses, as well as inclines a cat to infection

Symptoms of Cat Pyuria

Pyuria in cats is an indication of a condition in itself and may be eminent through the urine with a sturdy, or foul small combined with a cloudy appearance. Further, the symptoms, which often go with pyuria have to do with the main cat health condition.

Common symptoms seen in cats with pus in the urine can include: 

  • Dehydration
  • Depression
  • Fever
  • Local Effects of Inflammation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loss of function
  • Pain
  • Pustulent discharge
  • Redness of mucosal surfaces
  • Systemic Effects of Inflammation, as well as
  • Tissue swelling

Prognosis of Cat Pyuria

As pus in the urine or pyuria in cats is a sign of a condition and isn’t a diagnostic condition, the vet may find pyuria in his diagnostic measures. Further, the exam of urine, or a urinalysis, is the more common process in which a vet might detect pyuria. Upon the examination of the urine, the vet might note the existence of white blood cells to be of a much higher concentration as well as a urine culture might be requested. Additionally, a urine culture is a lab test, which will allow the particles of the infectious material to nurture to detect what kind of material is really attacking the urinary system of the cat.

Treatment for Cat Pyuria

The treatment of pyuria in cats is depending on the condition the vet found during the diagnostics. Additionally, the administration of oral antibiotics is a typical treatment method that’s used in the presence of the pus in the cat’s urine. Moreover, the cytology exam, which pinpointed what strain of bacteria is causing the condition may determine the type of the antibiotic the veterinarian will prescribe. Further, intravenous fluids might also be given to the cat, in order to reverse dehydration, as well as encourage urination to eliminate the infection further from the cat’s body.

Important Facts About Paraneoplastic Syndromes In Cats That You Need To Know


Paraneoplastic syndromes in cats are a group of conditions, which result from the abnormal secretions of hormone or hormone-like product, which come from cancerous tumor or from the immune response of the body to the tumor. These particular secretions may affect the associated organs or tissues, as well as generate an abnormal clinical response in the cats dealing with cancer. Give this article a read and get to learn more about this feline malady.

Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Cats: What is this feline condition?

As what we have stated above, Paraneoplastic syndromes in cats are a cluster of conditions that result from the irregular secretions of a hormone or a hormone-like product that come from the cancerous tumor or from the immune response of the body to a certain tumor. These specific secretions might affect the organs or tissues associated, as well as produce an anomalous clinical response in cats who are dealing with cancer.

Moreover, a neoplasm is another term for a tumor, and para is a Greek word, which is typically used in denoting something close to another thing. Literally, paraneoplastic means near a tumor. The paraneoplastic syndromes in cats may affect a range of areas of the cat, as well as may occur before or in association with the symptoms of nearby tumor.

Furthermore, paraneoplastic syndromes refers to a sequence of side effects, damage, or some other structural or cellular changes, which happen in the tissues near or surrounding the tumors.

Causes of Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Felines

The primary cause of paraneoplastic syndromes in cats is several bodily tumors, both non-cancerous and cancerous. Though the exact mechanisms of the condition are unknown, most vets and rese4archers agree that the secretions from tumors may affect the nearby tissues and may cause damage, as well as degeneration. Further, these secretions might stimulate an immune response in the tissues, thus causing the symptoms. Cancerous or malignant tumors may often release substances, which may cause the white blood cells to improperly attack the tissues. The non-malignant tumors commonly release the hormones, which cause the abnormal growth or some other changes.

Symptoms of Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Felines

The different symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes in cats may vary on the location and type of tumor. Further, symptoms may also vary in austerity contingent on the growth and progression of the tumor. The signs of paraneoplastic syndromes in cats include the following:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of pigment on paws or some other areas
  • Alopecia
  • Rash
  • Weeping or open wounds on the toes
  • Hairless and shiny patches of the skin, especially on the stomach area
  • Pustules or open wounds on the skin

Prognosis of Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Felines

The prognosis of paraneoplastic syndromes in cats will start with the vet ruling out other, alike conditions. The skin scrapings of any sores and some other tissue samples might be sent off by the vet to an independent lab for analysis. Additionally, a complete blood panel may also rule out systemic diseases or infection. Furthermore, blood thyroid tests may rule out hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism that will often present with the same symptoms.

Moreover, a thorough physical test of the cat, along with a thorough medical history of the progression of the symptoms, may also be essential in the prognosis of the condition. Further, you also need to provide the vet with the estimate dates of when the symptoms has first appeared, together with any changes on the condition. In case the cat or its relatives have a known history of cancer, this may be an important info as well.

Since the diagnosis of these syndromes depend on the identification of the presence of one or more tumors, the vet may also request several imaging tests. These might range from x-rays to CT scans or MRI or even ultrasound, varying on the suspected location of the tumor. For some of these types of procedures, the cat may need to be at least slightly sedated and go under general anesthesia.

Moreover, having the cat quiet and calm may produce the best images, as well as will allow the vet the best look in the body of the cat. In addition, anesthesia comes with the inherent risks. Prior to going under anesthesia, the vet may run some bloodwork and listen to the cat’s heart, in order to ensure it is really healthy enough to undergo the process.

Treatment for Paraneoplastic Syndromes

The treatment for paraneoplastic syndromes in cats is highly individualized and may depend on the location, stage, and type of the tumor. In case the cat has been suffering from wasting and anorexia, it’ll be necessary to place them on a nutritional support, and stabilized right before further invasive treatments may start. The invasive treatment is important, under any circumstances, as the kind of tumor is most probably of a highly malignant kind. The vet may remove the tumor, when possible. Further, chemotherapy might also be a choice, if the tumor is of the kind that’s likely to respond to chemical therapy. The doctor will be the one to discuss these options to the owner.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


It isn’t a secret that felines appreciate nestling close the heater or fireplace on a cold time, yet these spots might be the source of carbon monoxide poisoning. The carbon monoxide is actually a poisonous yet odorless gas, which is lethal to all the species, cats included. It may prevent the body fluid from bringing oxygen via the body & may result in hypoxia. The deficiency of oxygen in the cells may lead in death or coma. The toxicity level is commonly moderate through austere, yet carbon monoxide is deadly regardless of the amount that is inhaled. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about carbon monoxide poisoning in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Cats?

Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, non-irritating gas that is produced by the inept carbon fuel combustion. It’s possible toxic for cats and humans. Unventilated propane or kerosene heaters, automobile exhaust, gasoline engines, or fumes coming from carbon-based fuel healing systems are all impending sources for the carbon monoxide toxicity.

When it is inhaled, this gas is eagerly absorbed through the blood, combining with the hemoglobin in forming carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the delivery of oxygen throughout the body, and hence leading to the reduced use of oxygen in the heart and brain. Most instances of carbon monoxide toxicity in cats occur as a consequence of human error, like when a cat’s been left in a bounded area where the carbon monoxide is released.

For instance, a cat left in a hemmed in garage with a running automobile may be exposed to toxic carbon monoxide levels in approximately 10 minutes. Cats are also exposed in toxic levels of carbon monoxide when they’re trapped in buildings, which is on fire. Lengthy exposure through carbon monoxide may lead through hypoxemia and sooner or later death.


The sources of carbon monoxide poisoning in cats and some other species include the following:

  • Airplane cargo space
  • Kerosene lanterns
  • Barbecue grills
  • Automobile exhaust
  • Kerosene space heaters
  • Propane heaters
  • Ovens
  • Gas water heaters
  • Gas fireplaces
  • Furnaces
  • Smoke

A smoke or slow gas leak in rooms with poor exposure to air may also cause high carbon monoxide levels.


Varying on the duration and concentration of carbon monoxide exposure, the symptoms might be chronic or acute in nature.

  • Death
  • Coma
  • Loss of hearing
  • Depression
  • Abortion in pregnant animals
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Uncoordinated movements
  • Seizures
  • Dizziness
  • Lethargy
  • Weakness
  • Cherry red skin and mucus membranes
  • Sleepiness

The symptoms with chronic exposure through carbon monoxide include:

  • Disturbance in gait
  • Loss of exercise stamina
  • Flu like symptoms
  • Cough
  • Vomiting
  • Abnormal high levels of acids in the blood
  • Nausea


Your cat must be taken to the vet the minute you see any symptoms or signs of carbon monoxide poisoning. The vet may give your cat some physical examination in order to rule out some other possibilities. They’re also going to ask questions on where the cat’s been all throughout the day. Bear in mind, even the common nap next through the fireplace may be a source of carbon monoxide poisoning in cats. The vet might also ask if any pets or family members are suffering similar symptoms. This might be an indication of a leak of carbon monoxide at home.

The vet may also perform baseline blood tests in order to check CBC or complete blood count, the lab tests also include biochemical profile and urinalysis. An analysis of the blood gas is commonly done in checking for low blood pH levels and augmented levels of creatinine kinase that may cause poor tissue oxygenation. A hospital may check the blood samples for the carboxyhemoglobin if the test isn’t available in the vet clinic.

Treatments for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Cats

You may begin to treat the cat for the carbon monoxide exposure by way of moving them in a concourse with a fresh air. However, it’s still significant in taking your cat through the vet for right treatment and diagnosis. The vet may look at the following options:

  • Cardiac monitoring. The med staff may use serial neurologic exams and electrocardiograms in monitoring neurologic and cardiac status. This is done through ensuring the brain, nervous system, and heart are properly working.
  • Intravenous fluid therapy. The cat might receive intravenous fluid therapy in order to help in bringing the blood pH back to its normal level. The vet might also prescribe electrolyte and nutritional therapy to help in improving the breathing.
  • Oxygen supplementation. The treatment goal is supplying the blood with oxygen as soon as possible. The vet may use an oxygen chamber or breathing mask, in order to perform oxygen therapy on the cat.

There is also a change that the cat may need to be hospitalized till the blood oxygen levels go back to its normal. It’s significant in taking the cat to vet as soon as you notice the signs of carbon monoxide poisoning in cats.

What Should You Know About Hyperparathyroidism In Cats?


Hyperparathyroidism in cats is a medical condition wherein abnormally high levels of parathyroid hormone or the parathormone are circulating in the blood due to an overactive parathyroid gland. Know that, the parathyroid hormone is the one responsible for the regulation of phosphorus and calcium levels in the blood. As well as in increasing the blood calcium levels by causing the calcium to get reabsorbed from the bone. Moreover, the parathyroid glands are small, hormone-secreting glands, which are situated near or on the thyroid glands. In this article, we will be discussing what hyperparathyroidism in cats really is. Get to learn more about this –read on to this article.

Hyperparathyroidism in Cats: What is this feline condition?

The excess levels of parathyroid hormone results in excessive amount of calcium in the bloodstream. Moreo so, this may cause hypercalcemia. Further, the excessive amount of calcium may lead to various problems in the renal, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems.

Moreover, hyperparathyroidism in cats is an endocrine condition, which happens when the parathyroid glands secrete the excess amounts of parathyroid hormone. Additionally, there are four small parathyroid glands, which are located next to the thyroid gland in the neck of the cat. When one or more of these parathyroid glands suddenly become overactive, it yields excessive levels of the parathyroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Moreover, in the event that the blood calcium levels drop down, the parathyroid hormone levels will increase. Further, this will then allow the calcium to be taken out of the bones, in order to maintain the proper levels of it.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism:

  • Primary hyperparathyroidism, as well as
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Causes of Cat Hyperparathyroidism

The main hyperparathyroidism is due to one or more benign tumors that are called adenomas. These are situated on the parathyroid glands. The tumor is what causes the parathyroid gland to secrete the excess parathyroid hormone. Moreover, the malignant tumors are greatly rare in cats.

Furthermore, the secondary hyperparathyroidism is due to nutritional problem or some other conditions. Further, the causes of the secondary hyperparathyroidism in cats include:

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Nutritional excess of phosphorus
  • Nutritional deficiency of vitamin D and calcium, as well as
  • Kittens that are fed an all-meat diet

Symptoms of Cat Hyperparathyroidism

The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism in cats might not be present up until the levels of blood calcium have been at an amplified level for a continuous period of time. Further, these symptoms include:

  • Bloody urine
  • Straining during urination
  • Stiff gait
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Constipation
  • Vomiting
  • Presence of stones in the urinary tract
  • Comatose
  • Stupor
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Sluggishness or listlessness
  • Drowsiness
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Excessive urination, as well as
  • Excessive thirst

Prognosis of Cat Hyperparathyroidism

The vet may need the complete medical history of the cat, the estimated date when the symptoms started, as well as a detailed list of all the symptoms observed. Furthermore, the vet will also physically examine the cat that will include feeling for enlarged parathyroid glands, looking for gait and muscle abnormalities, as well as listening to the breathing and heart rate of the cat.

Moreover, laboratories that include a CBC, a urinalysis, and a biochemical profile might also be performed. These laboratories may show the phosphorus and calcium levels in the urine and blood. As well as in case a kidney condition is present. The elevated levels of these may be a confirmation of a prognosis of hyperparathyroidism. Further examinations may then be conducted to determine if a nutritional deficiency or a tumor is the cause. In addition, an x-ray and an ultrasound may also be performed. These are essential in looking at the thyroid, as well as the parathyroid glands. Additionally, these tests may look for the presence of tumor. Some other blood tests might also be performed, in order to determine what nutritional deficiencies are present.

In addition, due to the fact that parathyroid gland is so small, exploratory surgery might be essential in looking for the tumor, as well as in determining the cause of it.

Treatment for Cat Hyperparathyroidism

Primary hyperparathyroidism in cats commonly needs inpatient surgery and care. The secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to malnutrition or chronic disease is non-critical patients, which might be managed in an outpatient basis. Further, the vet might recommend calcium supplements, in order to stabilize the calcium levels in the intestines and blood,

Moreover, the low phosphorus diets for the secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to a long-term kidney condition might be recommendable too. Furhermore, surgical procedure is the treatment choice for the primary hyperparathyroidism and is often significant in establishing the prognosis. In case a tumor is existent, the best resolution is often a surgical removal of the tumor. Additionally, the medications may be prescribed, in accordance with the final diagnosis and treatment plan.

Currently, there are no known strategies for the prevention of the primary hyperparathyroidism. Nonetheless, secondary hyperparathyroidism In relation to malnutrition may be prevented through a proper nutrition.

Bile Duct Cancer In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Bile duct cancer is seen in both dogs and cats, especially those above 10 years old. Generally, the viewpoint isn’t advantageous for cats detected with this kind of cancer. Bile duct cancer’s actually a typical liver cancer, which may be hard to treat, because of its fast rate of metastasis and its aggressive nature. The overall diagnosis for the cats with this particular condition may depend largely on the health of the cat, as well as whether the cancer has already spread to the other organs. In this article, we will discuss some more interesting facts about bile duct cancer in cats including its causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Bile Duct Cancer in Cats?

Bile duct carcinomas are an aggressive kind of cancer, with the metastasis happening in 67-88% of affected animals. Historically, they’re hard to remove completely through surgical means. Moreover, this malignant cancer commonly arises from the epithelia, the cellular lining of the liver, bile ducts and happens more frequently in the intrahepatic bile ducts, instead of in the extrahepatic bile ducts. Complications of this condition may include the failure of the bile in passing through the bile ducts because of the tissue mass, which is blocking the duct, as well as the metastasis through the lungs, abdominal lining, and the lymph nodes of the liver.

Due to the tendency of the carcinoma in metastasizing extensively, it may also spread to some other regional lymph nodes, just like the diaphragm, pancreas, kidneys, bone, urinary bladder, spleen, and intestines. This is known as a specifically malignant kind of cancer. Hence, animals with this kind of condition commonly have a fortified to poor prognosis.

In addition, the bile duct carcinoma is the most typical kind of liver cancer, which is found to affect cats. Thought its occurrence doesn’t appear to be associated to the cat’s breed, it actually has been found to be much more common in female cats, as well as in cats that are ten years old or older.


There are actually 2 different kinds of bile duct tumors, which may develop in cats.

Biliary Carcinoma

These tumors are the second kind of liver tumor you can find in cats. These are malignant and may spread quickly to some other areas of the body. These are commonly found in the liver within the bile ducts.

Biliary Adenoma

These tumors are the most common kind of liver tumors in felines. This kind of tumor is located in 50% of cat liver tumors. They are not cancerous and might not cause issues until they become large and push against the other organs.


The real reason why some cats develop the bile duct cancer is actually unknown. Nonetheless, veterinarians think that there are specific factors, which may increase the risk of a cat to developing this kind of cancer. This includes the following:

  • Environmental toxins
  • Exposure to specific kinds of poisons or chemicals
  • Parasitic infection


The bile duct cancer may cause an extensive array of symptoms in felines. Below are some of the most common symptoms that come with this kind of cancer in domestic cats.

  • Swollen abdomen
  • Enlarged liver
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • Increase in thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Lethargy


The vet may need some info from you in order to diagnose the condition in your cat. They will start by asking some questions with regards the past health history of the cat. Make sure to include whatever unusual birth instances, recently diagnose conditions, as well as when you saw an onset of a symptom.

After taking the medical history, the vet may then examine the cat. He will observe the gait, demeanor, and neurological functions of it. He’ll draw some blood testing as well. The common panel may include a CBC and complete biochemical profile. He’ll also take urine samples in checking for infection. He may also check the liver enzymes in determining whether they’re elevated or not.

X-rays might also be done in determining the liver condition. Furthermore, an ultrasound might also be conducted for a more detailed view of the liver. On the other hand, the lone way in determining if a bile duct cancer is existent is a biopsy. Commonly, this is done through fine needle aspiration.

Treatments for Bile Duct Cancer in Cats

If a cat is diagnosed with the biliary adenoma, its treatment might vary in accordance to its symptoms. In other cases, no treatment is necessary, as long as the tumor is small. Some vets may use a needle in draining fluid from the cyst or tumor in order to reduce the possibility of it pressing contrary to some other organs in the body.

Cats that are diagnosed with the other type of this condition –biliary carcinoma commonly need surgery in removing the tumor. This is actually the best method treating bile duct tumors. Vets may safely get rid of about 75% of the liver to get rid of the cancer. Chemotherapy and radiation hasn’t been found to be so effective in treating this kind of cancer in dogs and cats.

What Should You Know About Hemorrhage Of The Lung In Cats?


Pulmonary contusion or hemorrhage of the lung in cats occurs when the lung of a cat is being crushed and / or torn during a direct trauma in the chest, this will then impede the ability of the cat to breath, as well as pass the arterial blood to a capillary bed in the synchrony. The cats that are suffering from this capillary damage might also develop a pulmonary fluid in their lungs, as well as a hemorrhage. The pulmonary contusion happens in both cats and dogs. There is no particular age, breed, or even gender predilection. Get to learn more about this feline condition –feel free to give this article a read.

Hemorrhage of the Lung in Cats: What is this feline condition?

Trauma on the chest or the thoracic area might cause just mild bruising or more serious kind of hemorrhage of the lungs. In case the cat has an accident, which includes this kind of trauma, it is significant to see the vet as the symptoms might worsen up to 48 hours after the traumatic experience. The hemorrhage of the lung in cats is so serious and may be a lethal condition when left without any treatment.

Moreover, the cats may suffer from a range of conditions, which may affect the performance and health of the lungs. While some of these conditions are just minor, others may cause some serious problems, just like hemorrhaging or the excessive bleeding in the lungs.

Furthermore, hemorrhaging in the lungs is frequently the pulmonary contusion result, or injury to the lungs, yet might be in relation to disease or some other conditions. The condition might be dangerous as it restricts the ability of the cat to breathe,

Causes of Lung Hemorrhage in Cats

Though the most common cause of the hemorrhage in the lung in cats is traumatic injury, there are some other conditions, which may cause this kind of bleeding to happen. Below are some of the most common causes that are seen in domestic cats:

  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Chemical poisoning
  • Cancerous tumors in the lungs
  • Blood clotting disorders
  • Traumatic injury

The thrombocytopenia is a condition, which reduces the cat’s blood clotting ability. Further, it may also increase the possibility of bleeding in the cat’s body. Here are some conditions, which cause thrombocytopenia that may in turn cause a hemorrhage in the cat’s lungs:

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Inflammatory conditions
  • Hepatitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Evans syndrome
  • Cancer
  • Heart disease
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Viruses
  • Infections

Symptoms of Lung Hemorrhage in Cats

There are particular symptoms, which might indicate the cat is really suffering from hemorrhage in its lungs. It is so important see the vet as soon as whatever indications of respiratory distress are existent. Here are some of the common symptoms that come with lung hemorrhage of the lung in cats:

  • Weight loss
  • Poor appetite
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Coughing up blood
  • Bluish colored mucous membranes

Prognosis of Lung Hemorrhage in Cats

To be able to diagnose the cat’s condition, the doctor may ask some significant questions about its medical history. Make sure to inform him about any issues during the birth, exposure to toxic substance, traumatic injury, as well as previously diagnosed health conditions. Furthermore, he will also check the cat’s vital signs. During the examination, the doctor will evaluate the neurological function of the cat, as well as listen to its chest. After the examination, the doctor will then draw blood sample from the cat, and run some lab tests.

Moreover, the common panel will include a biochemical profile, as well as a CBC. He’ll take a urine sample for evaluation purposes. The diagnostic tests like the chest x-rays may also be conducted in determining if there is a lung hemorrhage. In case a trauma in the chest have occurred, these x-rays may show fractures. If any blood conditions are assumed, the vet might also order a blood clotting test.

Most of the cats with lung hemorrhage may be admitted to the hospital for the management of the symptoms. The cat might also be monitored for signs of infection, as well as shock, which might happen as well during this moment. An IV might also be placed in delivering medication and fluids as necessary.

Treatment for Lung Hemorrhage in Cats

The treatment for hemorrhage of the lung in cats depends on the cause of the condition. In case of traumatic injury, the doctor may work in stabilizing the cat with fluids, medication, and oxygen. The vet might also close as many lesions as possible. In austere cases, surgery might be needed in closing multiple or even the deep wounds.

In case of blood clotting conditions, the cat may receive a supportive nutrition and blood transfusion via its IV. In the event of lung bleeding due to a cancerous tumor, the cat might need surgery for the removal of it. If the tumor is already inoperable and has spread, the cat might receive radiation or chemotherapy.

The cats with thrombocytopenia are frequently treated successfully with the daily dose of steroids. In whatever instances, if the cat lost a great amount of blood, a blood transfusion might be conducted in replacing it.

What Should You Know About Heart Valve Malformation In Cats?


Atrioventricular valve dysplasia or heart valve malformation in the cats is a feline condition, wherein the mitral valve or the tricuspid valves are being malformed. This particular condition may result in the valves not sufficiently closing to stop the blood flow when it is supposed to close, or to blood outflow obstruction because of the valves narrowing. The result of this malformation may depend on the location and size of the anatomic abnormality, which is present. Give this article a read and get to learn more about this feline condition.

Heart Valve Malformation in Cats: What is this feline malady?

Without any treatment, the heart valve malformation in cats is likely to result in irreparable heart damage or lethal congestive heart failure. Moreover, the condition may often cause emotional distress, as well as the possibility of early death is extremely possible. Moreover, cats that display common symptoms must be taken for a vet examination instantaneously, as the early detection is an important factor in the probability of the recovery.

Moreover, heart valve malformation in cats or atrioventricular valve dysplasia, is one of the most common congenital heart defects that affect cats. This particular condition occurs when the valves either do not completely close, allowing blood to flow through when it should not, or have become narrowed to an extent that the blood outflow has already been obstructed. Further, the condition is commonly inherited and most commonly perceived in cats or kittens up to 5 years old.

Types of Heart Valve Malformation

The heart valve malformation in cats is classified reliant on which valve has been obstructed, as well as whether the valve is narrowed or dilated.


This is the opposite condition, which occurs when the heart valves get narrow. This may cause the atrium of the heart to dilate while the ventricle gets to shrink.


The heart valve dilation happens when the superior chamber or atrium of the heart expands and the rear chamber of the heart broadens.

  • Tricuspid valve dilation –results in the pooling of the blood within the body
  • Mitral valve dilation –causes the blood to accumulate in the lungs

Causes of Heart Valve Malformation

The heart valve malformation in cats is commonly due to an inherited birth defect. Secondary to a thyroid tumor, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has also been in connection to the condition. This Siamese cat breeds are most likely to be impacted, and the male cats are more likely to develop the congestive heart failure as the result of the malformation.

Symptoms of Heart Valve Malformation

The symptoms of heart valve malformation in cats will depend on the size and location of the abnormality. When the mitral valve has been obstructed, the cat might show one or more of the symptoms below:

  • Congestive heart failure
  • Collapse
  • Blood clots
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Coughing
  • Weight loss
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Fatigue

Less commonly, dysplasia is located in the tricuspid valve. This is what causes a different set of symptoms, including the following:

  • Swollen abdomen
  • Loud breathing sounds
  • Stunted growth

Prognosis of Heart Valve Malformation

The vet treating the cat will review the full medical history of the cat, as well as discuss the details about the severity and the onset of the symptoms. In case available, a family history might also help in the diagnosis. Additionally, a standard set of lab tests may also be ordered in ruling out the presence of some other conditions, as well as, in most cases, normal results are expected.

Moreover, the visual diagnostic testing may likely be essential in checking for the heart abnormalities. This might include echocardiography, thoracic radiography, and x-rays. In addition, an electrocardiogram will be beneficial in determining whether the heart is normally functioning, a s well as indicate the existence of the abnormal heart rhythms. When the malformation in the heart valve is present, it is just common for the heart to emit a murmuring sound that may be heard using a stethoscope.

Treatment for Heart Valve Malformation

In the event that the cat has developed congestive heart failure already, intensive care and hospitalization may be needed for a better chance at recovery. In most instances, the suggested course of treatment may depend on the austerity of the condition.

Surgical Correction

In rare cases of the condition, surgical procedure in the correction of the defect might be recommendable. Moreover, this is often not a sustainable option as the survival rate tend to be somewhat poor.

Palliative Treatment

Medical treatment is commonly focused in the managing symptoms, as well as improving the overall quality of life of a cat. In case fluid is retained in the abdomen or lungs, it might need to be drained, as well as some diuretics might be prescribed. In some instances, vasodilators may also be used in expanding the blood vessels. Further, the abnormal heart rates might be regulated with the use of antiarrhythmic drug digoxin.

Bile Duct Obstruction In Cats: What Do You Need To Know About It?


Bile is the yellow-green fluid, which is produced and released by the liver and is deposited in the gallbladder. It’s found in both animals and humans and stays in the gallbladder up until the food has already been ingested. When the food has been consumed, the bile is being release through the small intestine in order to assist in digestion and will break down the food so it might be used properly by the body or passed out in waste form. In this article, we will discuss a condition in felines, which affect the bile duct. Here, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments for bile duct obstruction in felines or cats. Read on to learn more about these!

What is Bile Duct Obstruction in Cats?

Bile duct obstruction is also called cholestasis. This feline condition occurs when the bile is not able to flow properly from the gallbladder through the small intestine. When bile is prohibited from leaving the bile duct, your cat might become so ill, since it might not get the appropriate nutrition that it needs. Superfluous red blood cell (RBC) breakdown products may affect the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs.

The bile is a fluid, which assists the body of the cat in the food digestion. This is made in the liver and is being stored in the cat’s gallbladder. After the cat eats, the bile goes into the bile duct though the intestines. This is where it assists the breakdown of foods for the cat to receive the necessary nutrients and get rid of the leftover as waste material.


The bile duct obstruction is not actually a disease in itself, yet instead a secondary illness, which may arise from another condition or disease.

  • Malignant or benign growths
  • Trauma
  • Bile duct tumors
  • Abdominal surgery
  • Parasitic infestation
  • Cysts in the bile duct and liver
  • Bile tract disease, which may causes sludged fibrosis or bile, which does not flow appropriately
  • Liver inflammation, which prevents the bile from entering the gallbladder
  • Inflammation of the cat’s pancreas or pancreatitis
  • Gallstones, which grow huge enough and block the bile from parting the gallbladder


The symptoms of this condition might vary, contingent to the disease or condition, which is causing the obstruction to happen.

  • Bleeding disorders
  • Pale-colored stool
  • Orange or dark yellow colored urine
  • Weight loss
  • Jaundice that is presented with yellow mucus membranes, yellow skin, and / or yellow eyes
  • Excessive hunger
  • Lack of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue, which progresses through lethargy


The vet may ask for the complete medical history of the cat, details about the occurrence of the symptoms, as well as any possible trauma or current surgeries, which have caused the obstruction to happen. Next, a CBC or complete blood count, biochemistry panel and a urinalysis panel might be taken.

The said tests may help the veterinarian in determining the underlying conditions, which might be causing the obstruction and any other conditions, like anemia, which ensued because of the blockage. If the laboratory results show that the bilirubin levels of the cat are high, this is an indication that waste products are really building up in the cat’s bloodstream.

M0oreover, a stool analysis might also help the veterinarian in determining if normal levels of bilirubin are actually leaving the body. Excessive levels of bilirubin in the body is an indication of bile duct obstruction in cats. The liver enzymes of the cat may show if a liver disease or damage is existent, which are actually causing the obstruction. A urinalysis may help the vet in determining how the cat’s kidneys are reacting to this obstruction.

The vet might also perform x-ray to ultrasound, in order to look at the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. These tests might allow the vet in seeing any inflammation, scar tissue, or growths, which is causing the blockade. Exploratory surgery might be done if the laboratories, x-rays, and ultrasounds do not give conclusive results on the possible causes of the obstruction.

Treatments for Bile Duct Obstruction in Cats

The treatment for bile duct obstruction on the causal condition or disease, which triggered the blockage to happen.

  • Dietary restrictions. The vet might place the cat on restrict or special diet to help the liver and gallbladder function at their best.
  • Blood transfusions. If a cat has a bleeding condition due to liver disease, a blood transfusion might need to happen if the levels are so low.
  • Fluid therapy. Cats that has bile duct obstruction frequently present malnourished and dehydrated. The fluids may be administered to the cat to replace the fluids lost because of diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Surgery. This might be done in removing large gallstones, cysts, tumors, abnormal growths, and scar tissue. Surgery might also be done in taking biopsy of the lover or pancreatic tumors, in order to determine if they’re malignant or benign.
  • Medications. Medications might be administered to the cat to dissolve the gallstones, reduce inflammation of the liver and pancreas or enhance the consistency of the bile in bile tract condition, allowing the bile to freely flow through the small intestine.

What Should You Know About Congenital Heart Defects In Cats?


Aorta is the main artery, which feeds the oxygenated blood from the left-hand side of the heart to the body. Moreover, the pulmonary artery carries the deoxygenated blood, for it to be oxygenated, roaming from the right-hand side of the heart through the lungs. When the blood has already been oxygenated by the lungs. This will then return to the left side of the heart, via the pulmonary to be pushed out in the body through the aorta. Any condition that impedes this process may be delicate for the overall health. In this article, we will be discussing what congenital heart defects in cats really is. Give this article a read and know more about this.

Congenital Heart Defects in Cats: What is this feline condition?

The congenital heart defects in cats are not frequently diagnosed up until later in life. Nonetheless, kittens may show some symptoms briefly after birth, even though it is rare. Furthermore, congenital heart defect in cats are issues within the structure of the heart, which develop while that is still in the mother’s womb.

Furthermore, cats may also have heart conditions, which are not because of infection, trauma or disease. Additionally, some cats are also born with these heart issues, which may cause them to have poor overall health.

Types of Congenital Heart Defects

There are numerous types of congenital heart defects in cats. Furthermore, it’s often hard to diagnose them since they show the same set of symptoms. The following are some types of congenital heart defects in cats, which can be existent at birth:

  • Endocardial fibroelastosis
  • Cor triatriatum sinister
  • Mitral and tricuspid valve dysplasia
  • Tetralogy of fallot
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Atrial septal defect
  • Pulmonary valve sternosis
  • Aortic stenosis

Causes of Congenital Heart Defects

Congenital heart defects in cats may occur in the womb. These particular conditions are considered to be rare. In accordance to the Merck Manual Pet Health Addition, the congenital heart defect in cats are seen in less than 1% of the cat population. Though in a lot of cases there are no known causes, there are several things, which are thought to cause these defects to happen.

The following are some of the causes of congenital heart defects:

  • Medications taken by the mother cat throughout the pregnancy
  • Malnutrition of the mother cat
  • Chemical ingestion or poisoning in the mother cat
  • Genetics

Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects

Congenital heart defects in cats are often characterized by certain symptoms. Below are some of the most common among these symptoms, which mainly affect the domestic cats.

  • Labored breathing
  • Losing consciousness
  • Inability to exert themselves during an exercise
  • Bluish-tinted skin
  • Fluid accumulation in the stomach
  • Swollen abdomen
  • Chronic coughing

Prognosis of Congenital Heart Defects

Vets use a range of methods in diagnosing congenital heart defects in cats. The vet might take a complete medical history of the cat before examining the cat. To be able for him to have a precise picture, you need to include any information you have about the pregnancy of the mother cat, any symptoms you’ve seen in the cat for the past months, as well as its birth history. Further, it is also significant to include the date of the onset. After the vet takes the medical history, he will perform the examination. He will be observing the cat’s motor skill, gait, as well as overall behavior.

Certain lab tests may help the vet in getting an accurate prognosis. Moreover, the technician may take a blood sample from the cat and send it for testing. A CBC will detect any infection and the doctor might also look for the signs of diabetic or thyroid conditions. Additionally, a urine sample may also be taken to check for any infection.

Moreover, diagnostic tests like x-rays are done in detecting the structural defects in the cat’s heart. These are commonly done in-house. The advanced tests might need a referral to a specialty vet clinic. Further, an electrocardiogram is often used in viewing the defects in the heart vessels. CT scans may also give vets a more thorough view than the x-rays of the lungs and heart. This test may also give the vet more info about the structure of the ventricles, valves, and heart than any other imaging tests.

Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

The treatments for congenital heart defects in cats vary on the cause of the condition. The mild symptoms may need no treatment at all. Kittens might have a mild heart murmur, which is known as the innocent murmur in the vet world. This just means that while the doctor may detect a murmur, it’ll not affect the cat’s health at present or even in the future. In the older cats, the treatments may include keeping the cat as calm as possible with the lifestyle changes, special medications and diets. Further, surgery in correcting the structural heart defects isn’t often recommended for cats over 10 years old.

In the young cats, vets may recommend surgical procedure in repairing congenital defects, which cause the structural abnormalities. Furthermore, some kinds of surgeries performed in cats include aortic repair, surgery in repairing heart chambers, as well as cardiopulmonary bypass.

In the younger cats, medications like vasodilators, digoxin, and diuretics might be recommended in controlling the symptoms. Some illnesses like mitral valve problems aren’t well controlled using medications.

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